3. GAFA Companies
Image 3.3 Amazon’s revenues in 2016. 
Amazon’s strategy was also to expand in different business areas: the company is not only an online e-commerce platform, but also a delivery and logistic network, a movies’ producer, a book publisher, a provider of cloud space and so on. This expansion was achieved in great part by acquiring other companies: Amazon’s presence in so many related businesses make the company a sort of rival of his customers. For instance, the vertical integration into book publishing make it possible for Amazon to leverage other publishers to make them pay more fees to use the platform to sell their products – otherwise Amazon would prioritize his own books in its platform. The customers’ loyalty to Amazon gives the company a bargaining power so strong that its competitors are forced to do business with Amazon, even at high prices. If you want to sell something, you have to be on Amazon: on Marketplace, Amazon charge fees from 6% to 50% to third-party sellers that want to sell their product through the platform; at the same time, the company has developed his own products. Amazon’s tactic with Marketplace is the following: the company tracks sales and test the success of third-party sellers using its platform, using this information to itself develop products that compete with the third-sellers’ most popular ones, with lower prices and better ranking on the website research. In this way, third-sellers bear the initial risk and pay a fee to Amazon for selling their product, while Amazon, by tracking these products, produce and sell its own products only once they proved successful. Another example is the delivery business: given that for third-party delivery companies collaborating with it Amazon was important for their business, they allowed the company a 70% discount over regular delivery prices.
On the other hand, to make up for the discount, they raise prices for independent sellers. At the same time, Amazon started vertically integrating into the delivery business, offering a lower price than other companies – that, of course, were keeping high prices because of the discount they gave to Amazon. From there, Amazon created a logistic empire, building fulfillment centers, warehouses, in order to offer same-day delivery to its customers – free for Prime members. 
Amazon managed to become one of the most valuable company in the world using this strategy, at the same time it managed to avoid scrutiny by antitrust authorities, since for antitrust vision of anticompetitive conduct (that we will discuss in chapter 4) the company wasn’t doing anything wrong.
In December 1980 Apple went public with an offer of 4.6 million shares at $22 each. Even if that year the sales of Apple II almost doubled, the company was under pressure for the development of Apple III, that was finally released without adequate previous testing: it was never sold as the previous one. Despite this, the company went on investing, expanding and developing and by the beginning of 1982 650,000 Apple computers had been sold in all the world and the company was the first to reach $1 billion in annual sales. In 1984 the first Macintosh was launched for a price of
$2,495: Apple sold 70,000 of them in the first 100 days but after the positive start sales dropped and internal disagreements lead to the dismissal of Steve Jobs. Jobs was obsessed with the implementation of a close system, while Sculley pointed it as the cause of the sales dropping. In the next years, with Sculley, Macintosh and its new versions had great success, and by 1988 more than a million of it were sold. Apple became a global brand. The main competitor of the company was IBM, that from 1991 – with the introduction of Windows 3.0 – filled the gap with Apple regarding the usability. Even if Apple had all the chances to be the leader company in its field, using a close system was a limit that didn’t allow it. IBM was a valid alternative and had an open system, more flexible for the customers. Apple’s strategy was to give something rare and precious to his customers, that were willing to pay a premium price for it: scarcity and luxury were Apple’s strength. Sculley decided to compete with IBM and to offer low-cost computers as well, and in 1990 Mac Classic was out for a price of $999. In the meantime, he made a partnership with IBM to create a new operating system. Despite these changes, Apple’s gross margin lowered substantially and in 1993 Spindler became the new CEO. Spindler broke the tradition by giving the license of Apple’s technology to outside firms, allowing them to create Mac clones. He cut costs by 16% and invested millions in the project with IBM – that didn’t go further – but Apple was losing more and more market shares. In 1995 he made the big mistake of overestimating the demand of the new release Power Macintosh and Apple remained with $1 million of unfilled orders. Spindler was replaced with Gilbert Amelio, that made the decision of buying NeXT – founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple – and hired Steve Jobs as his personal advisor; two months after he became interim chief executive officer. Jobs immediately revoked the licensing agreement that allowed Mac clones and eliminated 15 out of 19 products from the company line: from 1997 Apple would focus only on professional Macintosh. [24,25]
In 1998 Apple launched iMac that sold 6 million units in three years. With Jobs the company decrease his inventory and invested in research and development. But beyond that, with Jobs Apple wasn’t only a computer company, it was a worship.  A kind of meta-scarcity was the company’s strategy: every product that was produced appeared like an icon, something not everybody can afford and that makes special who owns it. Apple means quality, security, usability and extremely unique design. And the thing that made most successful this strategy for the company was that – unlike other companies that sell luxury product in other fields – it had low-cost production. 
Thanks to Jobs Apple returned to be a profitable company: in 1999 sales grew by 3,2% and profits doubled. In 2000 Jobs became CEO and in 2001 was the launch of iPod that was a huge success: the customers could choose between different model in a range of prices between $49 and $499 and analysts estimated that the cost for an iPod sold for $249 was $127 for Apple. A key in the development of iPod was iTunes Music Store: Apple launched this online service in 2003 in order to give the possibility to his customers to buy songs for $0,99 and put them on their iPod. The initiative was approved thanks to the Fair Play mechanism that prevented piracy giving the possibility for a song to be reproduced only in five different devices. In 2007 the combined sales of
iPod and iTunes represented more or less the 45% of the company’s revenues. In the same year the company released Apple TV, that allowed to watch shows previously downloaded with iTunes on television, and iPhone, a bet that combined iPod and mobile phone service. But the very purpose was to reinvent the mobile phone: iPhone was a success and in 2008 a new version was released, iPhone 3G, along with Apple Store, where it was possible to buy application for the mobile phone.
In 2011 the iPhone 4GS was launched with Siri, a voice control friend that answered every question: four million were sold within the first weeks. [24,25] The iPhone soon became a cult: at every new released, customers were not only willing to spend a very high price for it - even if they couldn’t afford it – but the first days of a new release Apple Store were filled with lines of customers, that waited for hours and hours to be between the firsts to buy it. 
On October 5, 2011, Steve Jobs died, and this signed the end of an era for Apple.  The death of the company’s founder made only its reputation and appeal increase. Tim Cook became the new CEO: with him in 2015 Apple Watch was released, while other products had primarily upgrades than design changes. 
3.2.2 Business strategy
Apple’s strategy has two main elements: the integration of hardware and software implementing a closed system and the establishment of a strong brand in the luxury market maintaining low-cost production. Apple wasn’t born as a multi-sided platform: the company took this road from 2003 with the launch iTunes Music Store, two years after iPod was launched. You could buy the hardware (iPod) where you wanted, online, at Apple Stores, in electronic stores, but the content was only available on the official Apple online Store. Apple had control not only of the hardware but also of the user interface, iTunes Store – the only place where you could buy songs for your iPod.
This was what made the iPod very profitable for the company and signed the beginning of an era:
the development of iPod/iTunes platform gave Apple an incomparable advantage over its rivals in consumer electronic, since no one before included a digital content to a new developed electronic product. The integration of content (software, apps, media…) and hardware (iPod, iPhone, Mac..) was the strategy Apple continued pursuing to grow. Apple’s closed system produce lock-in effects to the consumers, because of the high switching costs, since Apple content only matches with Apple hardware. By 2010, 92% of Apple’s revenues came from platform-based products. In Image 3.4 we can observe the sources of Apple’s revenues from 2016.
Image 3.4 Apple’s revenues in 2016. 
This strategy was replicated with App Store in iPhone – and after iPod touch and iPad - from 2008: app developers can create and license to Apple their creation and Apple provide the platform for them to reach the consumers. App developers can retain the 70 per cent of the revenues while Apple, without paying for the creations of the apps, enjoys big part of the successful ones. The integration of hardware and software kept one being pursued also with iPad, Apple TV. 
The other strength point of Apple’s strategy is the luxury brand pricing combined with a low-cost production. Apple’s manufacturing and assembling is done mostly in China and shipped in distribution centers all around the world. The company achieved the goal by a strong marketing strategy, focused on consumer experience: owning an Apple device is part of the consumers’
lifestyle, that feel special and exclusive because not everyone can afford paying a premium price for the Apple experience. This “scarcity” is what make Apple’s luxury brand so different and makes the customer feel unique. Success in luxury is due to a particular attention on design, every detail is cured and the presentation is extraordinary, and to the simplicity of use of Apple’s devices, that create a sort of dependence into the customers.