Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**1**

**International Seminar on**

**Involving Citizens/Communities in Measuring & Fostering **
**Well-being & Progress:**

**towards new concepts and tools**

**Palais de l’Europe, Strasbourg (France)**

### Involving Citizens/Communities

### in Measuring & Fostering

### Well-being & Progress:

### towards new concepts and tools

### International Seminar on

Palais de l’Europe, Strasbourg (France) November 27 – 28, 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**3**

### Workshop 3

### Links between traditional systems of

### Links between traditional systems of

### Links between traditional systems of

### Links between traditional systems of

### indicators and those developed with

### indicators and those developed with

### indicators and those developed with

### indicators and those developed with

### citizens/communities:

### citizens/communities:

### citizens/communities:

### citizens/communities:

### antagonisms,

### antagonisms,

### antagonisms,

### antagonisms,

### alternatives or

### alternatives or

### alternatives or

### alternatives or

### complementarities?

### complementarities?

### complementarities?

### complementarities?

filomena.maggino @unifi.it

### Towards more participative methods

### Towards more participative methods

### in the construction of composite

### in the construction of composite

### indicators

### indicators

### The case of

### The case of

### weighting

### weighting

### systems

### systems

### Filomena Maggino

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**5**

### 1.Introduction

### 3.Obtaining weights:

### objective ad subjective approaches

### 2.Obtaining weights:

### general principles

### 4.Conclusions

### 1.Introduction

### 3.Obtaining weights:

### objective ad subjective approaches

### 2.Obtaining weights:

### general principles

### 4.Conclusions

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**7**

**GOAL**

**GOAL**

**GOAL**

**GOAL**

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### legitimacy

### of Social

### of Social Indicators

### of Social

### of Social

### Indicators

### Indicators

### Indicators

**HOW ?**

**HOW ?**

**HOW ?**

**HOW ?**

### involving

### involving

### involving

### involving

### involving

### involving

### involving

### involving

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### individuals

### in the

### in the

### in the

### in the process

### process

### process

### process

**GOAL**

_{Obtaining a larger }_{legitimacy}_{legitimacy}_{of social indicators}

**How to obtain this ?**

### Methodology

### Methodology

### Methodology

### Methodology

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### “

### Technology

### Technology

### Technology

### Technology”

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### Specialistic

### Specialistic

### Specialistic

### Specialistic Training

### Training

### Training

### Training

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### Scientific

### Scientific

### Scientific

### Scientific

### and

### and

### and

### and

### Objective

### Objective

### Objective

### Objective

### Way

### Way

### Way

### Way

The methodology aimed at constructing indicators refers to and deals with the term “technology”, pointing out the need to have specialistic training in order to apply the procedure in a scientific

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**9**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**the procedure**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**is**

**far **

**far **

**far **

**far **

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

_{far }

**from**

**from**

**from**

**from**

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

_{from}

**being **

**being **

**being **

**being **

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

_{being }

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**objective**

**and **

**and **

**and **

**and **

**and **

**and **

**and **

**and **

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**aseptic**

**Actuallythe procedure,the procedure,**

**even though scientifically defined, **

**is**

### Indicators

### Indicators

### Indicators

### Indicators construction

### construction

### construction

### construction

### Stages

### Stages

### Stages

### Stages

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### Decision

### Decision

### Decision

### Decision /

### /

### /

### / Choice

### Choice

### Choice

### Choice

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### Technical / Value judgments

**Indicators construction**

**is developed through differentstages. **

⇓ ⇓⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓

**Each stage requires**

**a decision / choice(methodological or not) **
**to be taken.**
⇓
⇓⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓

**Some decisions are quite technical****others may involve value judgments**

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**11**

### Objective decisions :

### Objective decisions :

### Objective decisions :

### Objective decisions :

### quite difficult

### generally

### generally

### generally

### generally

### generally

### generally

### generally

### generally

### Scientific community:

### Scientific community:

### Scientific community:

### Scientific community:

### accepted and shared

### but

### but

### but

### but

### but

### but

### but

### but

### Larger community:

### Larger community:

### Larger community:

### Larger community:

### can we share this ?

**It is quite difficult to make these decisions objective**

**Generally **

**they are taken through a process accepted and shared by the scientific **
**community**

**But **

### Choosing

### Choosing

### Choosing

### Choosing…

### …

### …

### …

### 1.

### 1.

### 1.

### 1. …

### …

### … analytical

### …

### analytical

### analytical

### analytical approach

### approach

### approach

### approach

### 2.

### 2.

### 2.

### 2. …

### …

### … and

### …

### and

### and

### and obtaining

### obtaining

### obtaining weights

### obtaining

### weights

### weights

### weights

### 3.

### 3.

### 3.

### 3. …

### …

### … and

### …

### and

### and

### and identifying the

### identifying the

### identifying the aggregating

### identifying the

### aggregating

### aggregating

### aggregating

### technique

### technique

### technique

### technique

### 4.

### 4.

### 4.

### 4. …

### …

### … models

### …

### models

### models

### models and

### and conceptual

### and

### and

### conceptual

### conceptual approaches

### conceptual

### approaches

### approaches

### approaches in

### in

### in

### in

### order

### order

### order

### order to

### to

### to assess

### to

### assess

### assess

### assess

### (i)

### (i)

### (i)

### (i) robustness

### robustness

### robustness

### robustness

### ((((iiiiiiii) ) ) ) discriminant

### discriminant

### discriminant

### discriminant capacity

### capacity

### capacity

### capacity

### In

### In

### particular

### particular

### …

### …

1. choosing analytical approach in order to verify the underlying dimensionality of selected elementary indicators (dimensional analysis) 2. choosing and obtaining weights in order to define the importance of

each elementary indicator to be aggregated (weighting criteria)

3. choosing and identifying the aggregating technique in order to synthetize the elementary indicators values into composite indicators (aggregating-over-indicators techniques)

4. choosing models and conceptual approaches in order to assess

1. the robustness of the synthetic indicator in terms of capacity to produce correct and stable measures (uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis)

2. the discriminant capacity of the synthetic indicator (ascertainment of selectivity and identification of cut-point or

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**13**

### Weights

### Weights

### Weights

### Weights

### differential importance

### differential importance

### differential importance

### differential importance

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### not simply a technical problem

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### Weights

### Weights

### Judgment values

### Judgment values

### Judgment values

### Judgment values

**Weights**in indicators construction aim at assigning differential **importance**to the
indicators to be aggregated.
⇓
⇓⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓
⇓

this process does not represent simply a technical problem

⇓ ⇓⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓

### Weights

### Weights

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### differential

### differential

### subjective

### subjective

### weights

### weights

### How

### How

### How

### How

### How

### How

### How

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**15**

### Determining

### Determining

### and

### and

### applying

### applying

### differential

### differential

### subjective

### subjective

### weights

### weights

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### conceptual

### conceptual

### framework

### framework

### how to

### obtain

### obtain

### obtain

### obtain

### weights

### assign

### assign

### assign

### assign

### weights

Determining

Determining and and applyingapplyingdifferentialdifferentialsubjectivesubjectiveweightsweights ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓⇓ ⇓

solid **conceptualconceptualframeworkframework**helping in clarifying how

_{to } _{obtain}_{obtain}_{obtain}_{obtain} _{importance weights at individual-subjective level through }

subjective judgments

### 1.Introduction

### 3.Obtaining weights:

### objective ad subjective approaches

### 2.Obtaining weights:

### general principles

### 4.Conclusions

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**17**

### General statements

## ∑

### =

### =

*K*

*j*

*ij*

*ij*

*i*

*x*

*w*

*CI*

### 1

CI CI CICI_{iiii} composite indicator for case i

KKKK number of indicators to be aggregated

xxxx_{ijijijij} indicator j to be aggregated for case i
w

ww

### Basic conditions

### The identified weights

_{non negative}

_{non negative}_{add up to unity}

_{add up to unity}_{related to the corresponding}

_{score}

_{score}_{rescaled to}

_{identical range}

_{identical range}_{(0; 1)}

### General statements

**General basic conditions **

The identified weights
are *non negative*numbers

*add up to unity *

are related in some way to the corresponding *score*

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**19**

### R

### R

### R

### Reproduc

### eproduc

### eproduc

### eproducing

### ing

### ing each

### ing

### each CI sub

### each

### each

### CI sub

### CI sub

### CI sub----score

### score

### score

### score’’’’ssss contribution

### contribution

### contribution

### contribution

### criterion

### criterion

### criterion

### criterion

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### weighting system

### weighting system

### weighting system

### weighting system

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### adopted

### adopted

### adopted

### adopted measurement model

### measurement model

### measurement model

### measurement model

### improvement & refinement

### improvement & refinement

### improvement & refinement

### improvement & refinement

### General statements

In order to reproduce as accurately as possible the contribution of each sub-score to the construction of CI

a criterion has to be adopted to define a weighting system a criterion has to be adopted to define a weighting systema criterion has to be adopted to define a weighting system a criterion has to be adopted to define a weighting system

improvement and refinement of the adopted model of measurement improvement and refinement of the adopted model of measurementimprovement and refinement of the adopted model of measurement improvement and refinement of the adopted model of measurement.

### Generic

### Generic

### Generic

### Generic weighting

### weighting

### weighting

### weighting system

### system

### system

### system identification

### identification

### identification

### identification

### needs to

### needs to

### needs to

### needs to

### take into account :

### take into account :

### take into account :

### take into account :

### rationale and theoretical

### rationale and theoretical

### rationale and theoretical

### rationale and theoretical

### framework

### framework

### framework

### framework

### meaning and contribution of each

### meaning and contribution of each

### meaning and contribution of each

### meaning and contribution of each

### sub

### sub

### sub

### sub----score

### score

### score

### score

### quality of data

### quality of data

### quality of data

### quality of data

### and

### and

### and

### and

### statistical adequacy

### statistical adequacy

### statistical adequacy

### statistical adequacy

### of

### of

### of

### of

### indicators

### indicators

### indicators

### indicators

### General statements

Generic weighting system identification
needs to **take into account : **

**rationale and theoretical framework**on which the measurement of the complex
characteristics is founded and that will consequently regard the synthetic score

**meaning and contribution of each sub-score**to the synthesis

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**21**

### proportional size

### proportional size

### proportional size

### proportional size

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

### equal

### equal

### equal

### equal

### equal

### equal

### equal

### equal

### or

### differential

### differential

### differential

### differential

### differential

### differential

### differential

### differential

### weighting

### weighting

### weighting

### weighting

### aggregation technique

### aggregation technique

### aggregation technique

### aggregation technique

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### or

### non

### non

### non

### non

### non

### non

### non

### non

### ----

### ----

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### Generic

### Generic

### Generic

### Generic weighting

### weighting

### weighting

### weighting system

### system

### system

### system identification

### identification

### identification

### identification

### needs

### needs

### needs

### needs

### decisions

### decisions

### decisions

### decisions

### General statements

Generic weighting system identification needs decisions to be taken

**proportional size of weights**

**a.**

**a.equalequal or differential weightingdifferential**

**aggregation technique to be adopted **

**b.**

### N.B.

### AAAA

### AAAA

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### whole set of weights

### does not exist

### does not exist

### General statements

N.B.

**Awhole set of weightswhole set of weights**

**able to express in a perfect perfect way **

the contribution of each indicator

**does not exist**

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**23**

### Equal vs. differential weighting

### Equal vs. differential weighting

### Equal vs. differential weighting

### Equal vs. differential weighting

### First decision

### First decision

### First decision

### First decision

### Weighting

### Weighting

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Equal

### Different

### Different

### Different

### Different

### Different

### Different

### Different

### Different

### The choice will strongly influence

### The choice will strongly influence

### The choice will strongly influence

### The choice will strongly influence

### the final results

### the final results

### the final results

### the final results

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**25**

_{different}

_{different}

_{different}

_{different components }

_{components }

_{components }

_{components }

### different

### different

### different

### different numbers

### numbers

### numbers

### numbers

synthetic score = unbalanced structure

_{indicators}

_{indicators}

_{indicators}

_{indicators exist measuring the same }

_{exist measuring the same }

_{exist measuring the same }

_{exist measuring the same }

### component

### component

### component

### component

double weighted or double counting

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

procedure mainly### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### Equal Weighting

### General statements

**different components have to be aggregated**
**by different numbers of indicators**

synthetic score = unbalanced structure

**indicators exist measuring the same component**

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{theoretical reflections}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

_{methodological concerns}

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

### Doubtful

procedure mainly### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

### when

not supported bynot supported bynot supported bynot supported by### General statements

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

### Differential Weighting

••theoretical reflectionstheoretical reflections on the meaning and impact of each indicator on the theoretical reflectionstheoretical reflectionstheoretical reflectionstheoretical reflectionstheoretical reflectionstheoretical reflections synthesis,

•

•methodological concernsmethodological concerns aimed at identifying proper and consistent methodological concernsmethodological concernsmethodological concernsmethodological concernsmethodological concernsmethodological concerns techniques.

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**27**

### Compensatory and

### Compensatory and

### Compensatory and

### Compensatory and

### Non

### Non

### Non

### Non----compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### compensatory

### aggregation techniques

### aggregation techniques

### aggregation techniques

### aggregation techniques

In order to avoid incoherencies between In order to avoid incoherencies between In order to avoid incoherencies between In order to avoid incoherencies between

theoretical meaning actual application theoretical meaning actual application theoretical meaning actual application theoretical meaning actual application

**of weights of weights**

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

a consistent aggregating technique is needed a consistent aggregating technique is neededa consistent aggregating technique is needed a consistent aggregating technique is needed

by byby

by cccconsideronsideronsideringonsideringing compensability among ing compensability among compensability among compensability among the elementary indicators

the elementary indicators the elementary indicators the elementary indicators

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**29**

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

### Compensatory

aggregating approach additive additive additive additive_{(simple addition)}geometrical geometrical geometrical geometrical

_{(multiplicative technique)}

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

low values compensated by high values low values compensated by high values low values compensated by high values low values compensated by high values

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

synthetic score does not allow us to return to the original individual profiles

### problems of interpretation

### problems of interpretation

### problems of interpretation

### problems of interpretation

###

###

###

### In obtaining

### ssss

### ssss

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### ubjective

### weights

### weights

### weights

### weights

### weights

### weights

### weights

### weights

### the decisions / choices

### do not rely on experts

### Obtaining subjective

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**31**

_{theoretical issue}

_{theoretical issue}

_{theoretical issue}

_{theoretical issue}

“importance” is a distinct construct ?

_{psychometric properties of importance ratings}

_{psychometric properties of importance ratings}

_{psychometric properties of importance ratings}

_{psychometric properties of importance ratings}

internal consistency and test-retest reliability Subjective weighting system identification

needs to take into accounttake into accounttake into accounttake into account :

### Obtaining subjective

### weights statements

_{criterion}

_{criterion}

_{criterion}

_{criterion}

_{level}

_{level}

_{level}

_{level}

_{techniques }

_{techniques }

_{techniques }

_{techniques }

_{approach }

_{approach }

_{approach }

_{approach }

Subjective weighting system identification : a modelmodelmodelmodel should be chosen by considering

### Obtaining subjective

### weights statements

Identification of a subjective weighting system:
a **model**should be chosen by considering

the criterion of importance or preference to be adopted

the level at which weights are determined and applied (individualindividual or individualindividualindividualindividualindividualindividual groupgroupgroupgroupgroupgroupgroupgroup weights)

the techniques allowing subjective evaluations and judgments to be collected (explicitly or implicitly)

the approach allowing a subjective importance/preference continuum to be constructed

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**33**

### 1.Introduction

### 3.Obtaining weights:

### objective ad subjective approaches

### 2.Obtaining weights:

### general principles

### 4.Conclusions

### Can

### Can

### Can

### Can

### Can

### Can

### Can

### Can

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### produce weights:

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a.

statistical statistical statistical statistical methodsmethodsmethodsmethods### b.

### b.

### b.

### b.

multimultimultimulti----attribute attribute attribute approachesattribute approachesapproachesapproaches### c.

### c.

### c.

### c.

scaling approachesscaling approachesscaling approachesscaling approaches### Obtaining weights

### approaches

### ““““objective

### objective

### objective

### objective””””

### ⇒

### ⇒

### ⇒

### ⇒

### ““““subjective

### subjective

### subjective

### subjective””””

### ⇒

### ⇒

### ⇒

### ⇒

scaling approaches scaling approaches scaling approaches scaling approaches can

- handle subjective evaluations and judgments, explicitly or implicitly expressed

- obtain subjective weights at group level and at individual level.

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**35**

### a.

### a.

### a.

### a. Statistical methods

### Statistical methods

### Statistical methods

### Statistical methods

### Obtaining weights

### approaches

Weights Weights Weights

Weights are are are are determineddetermineddetermined throughdetermined throughthroughthrough

1. 1.1.

1. CorrelationCorrelationCorrelation AnalysisCorrelation AnalysisAnalysisAnalysis 2.

2.2.

2. Principal Component AnalysisPrincipal Component AnalysisPrincipal Component AnalysisPrincipal Component Analysis 3.

3.3.

3. Data Envelopment AnalysisData Envelopment AnalysisData Envelopment AnalysisData Envelopment Analysis

the same data on which weights will be applied the concept of efficient performance

### Statistical methods

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**37**

### b.

### b.

### b.

### b. Multi

### Multi

### Multi

### Multi----attributes approaches

### attributes approaches

### attributes approaches

### attributes approaches

### Obtaining weights

### approaches

### Multi

### Multi

### Multi

### Multi----Attribute Models

### Attribute Models

### Attribute Models

### Attribute Models

allow

subjective importance weights to be identified at subjective level

through an indirect approach by

### Multi-attributes

### approaches

• managing a certain number of combined comparisons

• applying methods aimed at making decision among different available alternatives

Weights obtained through these methods are considered more stable than those produced by direct evaluations.

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**39**

1. 1. 1.

1. MultiMultiMulti----Attribute Decision MakingMulti Attribute Decision MakingAttribute Decision MakingAttribute Decision Making:

_{Analytic Hierarchy Process }

_{Analytic Hierarchy Process }

_{Analytic Hierarchy Process }

_{Analytic Hierarchy Process }

_{(AHP)}pairwisepairwise comparisonpairwisepairwisecomparisoncomparisoncomparison 2.

2. 2.

2. MultiMultiMulti----Attribute Compositional ModelMulti Attribute Compositional ModelAttribute Compositional ModelAttribute Compositional Modelssss:

_{Conjoint Analysis }

_{Conjoint Analysis }

_{Conjoint Analysis }

_{Conjoint Analysis }

_{(CA)}

### Among these models we can distinguish:

### Among these models we can distinguish:

### Among these models we can distinguish:

### Among these models we can distinguish:

### Multi-attributes

### approaches

### c.

### c.

### c.

### c. Scaling approaches

### Scaling approaches

### Scaling approaches

### Scaling approaches

### Obtaining weights

### approaches

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**41**

_{Dimensionality}

_{Dimensionality}

_{Dimensionality}

_{Dimensionality}

_{Nature of data}

_{Nature of data}

_{Nature of data}

_{Nature of data}

_{Scaling technique}

_{Scaling technique}

_{Scaling technique}

_{Scaling technique}

_{Criterion for testing the model}

_{Criterion for testing the model}

_{Criterion for testing the model}

_{Criterion for testing the model}

_{Standard of measurement}

_{Standard of measurement}

_{Standard of measurement}

_{Standard of measurement}

_{Contribution to the measurement of each }

_{Contribution to the measurement of each }

_{Contribution to the measurement of each }

_{Contribution to the measurement of each }

multiple multiplemultiple

multiple measuresmeasuresmeasuresmeasures

### They

### They

### They

### They can

### can

### can

### can be

### be

### be classifi

### be

### classified through

### classifi

### classifi

### ed through

### ed through

### ed through their

### their

### their features

### their

### features

### features

### features::::

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**43**

_{wh}

_{wh}

_{wh}

_{whoooose nature is comparative or preferential }

_{se nature is comparative or preferential }

_{se nature is comparative or preferential }

_{se nature is comparative or preferential }

_{((((in }

_{in }

_{in }

_{in yellow in the previous table)}

_{yellow in the previous table)}

_{yellow in the previous table)}

_{yellow in the previous table)}

_{produced by a comparative scaling technique }

_{produced by a comparative scaling technique }

_{produced by a comparative scaling technique }

_{produced by a comparative scaling technique }

_{((((in pink in the previous table)}

_{in pink in the previous table)}

_{in pink in the previous table)}

_{in pink in the previous table)}

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### Among all these approaches we

### need

### need

### need

### need

### need

### need

### need

### need

### to

### to

### to

### to

### to

### to

### to

### to

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

### select those approaches that utilize data:

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting: }

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting}

_{group weighting}Thurstone model

_{(}differential scale

_{)}Unfolding model

_{(}perceptual mapping

_{)}

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting: }

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting}

_{individual weighting}Conjoint model

### Scaling models allowing subjective

### Scaling models allowing subjective

### Scaling models allowing subjective

### Scaling models allowing subjective

### weights to be obtained

### weights to be obtained

### weights to be obtained

### weights to be obtained are

### are

### are

### are

### Scaling approaches

In our perspective, these models can be distinguished with reference to the possibility to define subjective weights at individual level or at group level (last column of the previous table), in particular:

--group weightinggroup weightinggroup weightinggroup weightinggroup weightinggroup weightinggroup weightinggroup weighting: Thurstone model(differential scale), unfolding model

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**45**

### 1.Introduction

### 3.Obtaining weights:

### objective ad subjective approaches

### 2.Obtaining weights:

### general principles

### 4.Conclusions

This work aims at This work aims at This work aims at This work aims at

systematically framing the issue and systematically framing the issue and systematically framing the issue and systematically framing the issue and showing the possible approaches in order to showing the possible approaches in order to showing the possible approaches in order to showing the possible approaches in order to obtaining weights in a subjective perspective obtaining weights in a subjective perspective obtaining weights in a subjective perspective obtaining weights in a subjective perspective

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

anticipating a anticipating a anticipating aanticipating a research proposalresearch proposalresearch proposalresearch proposalresearch proposalresearch proposalresearch proposalresearch proposal we are going to we are going to we are going to we are going to define define define define

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

### ⇓

clarifying many technical issues clarifying many technical issuesclarifying many technical issues clarifying many technical issues

Copyright (c) 2008 - F. Maggino

**47**

### Difficulties

### Difficulties

### Difficulties

### Difficulties

Obtaining subjective weights requires and relies Obtaining subjective weights requires and relies Obtaining subjective weights requires and relies Obtaining subjective weights requires and relies on the accomplishment of large survey projects on the accomplishment of large survey projects on the accomplishment of large survey projects on the accomplishment of large survey projects

aimed at collecting aimed at collecting aimed at collecting

aimed at collecting ““““importanceimportanceimportance”””” dataimportance datadatadata

_{Time}

_{Time}

_{Time}

_{Time}

_{Resources}

_{Resources}

_{Resources}

_{Resources}

_{Sampling}

_{Sampling}

_{Sampling}

_{Sampling}

_{Field}

_{Field}

_{Field}

_{Field work}

_{work}

_{work}

_{work}

_{…}

_{…}

_{…}

_{…}

**«Constructing composite indicators should ****take into account the agreement among ****citizens concerning the importance to be **

**assigned to each indicator»****(Hagerty and Land, 2007)**

**Seen in this perspective, this topic can be**
**placed in the ambit of an improvement of **

**democratic participation to decisions**
**(“res publica”)**