• Non ci sono risultati.

Design, development, and performance of the fibres of MOONS


Academic year: 2021

Condividi "Design, development, and performance of the fibres of MOONS"

Mostra di più ( pagine)

Testo completo



Publication Year


Acceptance in OA@INAF

Design, development, and performance of the fibres of MOONS


Guinouard, Isabelle; Avila, Gerardo; Lee, David; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Rees, Phil; et al. Authors 10.1117/12.2231413 DOI http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/24474 Handle PROCEEDINGS OF SPIE Series 9912 Number




Design, development, and

performance of the fibres of MOONS

Guinouard, Isabelle, Avila, Gerardo, Lee, David, Amans,

Jean-Philippe, Rees, Phil, et al.

Isabelle Guinouard, Gerardo Avila, David Lee, Jean-Philippe Amans, Phil

Rees, William Taylor, Ernesto Oliva, "Design, development, and performance

of the fibres of MOONS," Proc. SPIE 9912, Advances in Optical and


Design, development and performance of the fibres of MOONS

Isabelle Guinouard*


, Gerardo Avila


, David Lee


, Jean-Philippe Amans



Phil Rees


, William Taylor


, Ernesto Oliva



GEPI, Observatoire de Paris-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot-Paris Sciences et Lettres,

5 Pl. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France;


ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2 85748 Garching bei München, D;


UKATC, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK;


INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri 50125 Firenze, IT;


The Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph (MOONS) will exploit the full 500 square arcmin field of view offered by the Nasmyth focus of the Very Large Telescope and will be equipped with two identical triple arm cryogenic spectrographs covering the wavelength range 0.64µm-1.8µm, with a multiplex capability of over 1000 fibres. Each spectrograph will produce spectra for 500 targets simultaneously, each with its own dedicated sky fibre for optimal sky subtraction. The system will have both a medium resolution (R~4000-6000) mode and a high resolution (R~20000) mode.

The fibres are used to pick off each sub field of 1” and are used to transport the light from the instrument focal plane to the two spectrographs. Each fibre has a microlens to focus the beam into the fibre at a relative fast focal ratio of F/3.65 to reduce the Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD).

This paper presents the design of the fibre management module and describes the specific developments required to optimise its performances.

Keywords: MOONS, VLT, Optical fibres, Multi Object Spectroscopy


MOONS is described in several papers of which “MOONS: an optical and near-IR multi-object spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope” (Cirasuolo et al.) [1] is the most important. Fibres are used to pick off each sub field and are used to transport the light from the instrument focal plane to the two spectrographs. The distance between the two determined the length of the fibre assemblies which in the current design is in the order of 10m. A schematic view of this system is shown in Figure 1.

* Contact: Isabelle.Guinouard@obspm.fr; phone +33-1-45077983; fax +33-1-45077709. GEPI, Observatoire de Paris

Advances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation II, edited by Ramón Navarro, James H. Burge, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9912, 99125G


Ascnnw gsQis{IOi. 6f1 cspie 6EEKCS B9L6 .LIPLf iene Cu

Figure 1 Bundle design


2.1 Fibre button optical design description

To comply with the science requirements, each fibre shall have an on-sky aperture ≥ 1 arcsec. The aperture is adapted by a single microlens glued onto a fibre with a core diameter of 150 µm. This lens will also help to limit the loss of light and is also required to speed up to focal ratio such that the output of the fibres will match the spectrograph’s input focal ratio of F/3.5. The optical aperture conversion at the input of each fibre is shown in Figure 2. Thus in MOONS, we inject at a fast F ratio of F/3.65, which limits the FRD. At the output, the F ratio is slightly degraded and is at F/3.5.

Figure 2 Fibre injection principle (pupil image on fibre core)

The field is defined by the field stop located in the object focal plane of the microlens. The microlens projects the image of the pupil (primary mirror) onto the fibre core. The projected beams from all points in the image plane are injected into the fibre with the same F/number because the field is located in the object focal plane of the microlens. The diameter of the size of the pupil is 142µm (diameter fibre core: 150µm).

Figure 3 Microlens design field stop fibre F/# µlens telescope F/# fibre ∅field stop = 1" = 0.582mm 2.16mm


25 20


15-10 Typical Attenuation

5-0 500 700 900 1100 1300 Wavelength, nm 1500 . 1 1700 1900 2100

Glass = fused silica (nd = 1.458464)

Radius of curvature = 0.975mm (Zemax optimization) Thickness = 3.08mm

Diameter = 0.9mm

AR coating on the spherical surface Spectral bandwidth = 0.6 - 1.8µm

2.2 Fibre selection

Only Polymicro were investigated, Polymicro fibres are well known and are used in various astronomical instruments. The wavelength coverage for MOONS is from 0.64 µm to 1.8 µm, the FIP fibre is chosen, with the expected attenuation as shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 4 Data sheet from Polymicro(Molex)

In order to optimize the performance of the fibre and so to decrease the Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD), the ratio between the core and the cladding is 1.2, resulting in a fibre design as shown in Fig. 5. This ratio is also chosen to avoid evanescent wave losses in the cladding.

Figure 5 Structure of the fibre Protection buffer : 200µm

Core : 150µm Cladding : 180µm


N O 00.58 03 N N 03.9

The FRD is the decrease in focal ratio (decrease in effective F-number) in an optical fibre. The ability of a fibre to preserve the angular distribution of the input beam from the telescope to the spectrograph is very important in order to maintain a feasible spectrograph size with good efficiency.

The major causes of FRD are mechanical variations in the fibre dimensions with length (under the manufacturer’s control) and the mechanical set-up of the instrumentation (under the control of the user). Small variations in the fibre core diameter or core-clad interface can cause mode stripping, resulting in FRD. Both macro bending and micro bending will cause FRD.

2.3 Front-end assembly

The fibre button needs to be attached to the fibre positioning arm, as shown in Fig. 6. The curved arm holds the cylindrical (button) which is 2.8 mm in diameter and 10.0 mm long. The field stop is located in the object focal plane of the microlens. A small countersink screw clamps the cylindrical button in place.

Figure 6 Preliminary design of the fibre button and positioning arm 2.4 Slit-end assembly

For the cross-talk considerations, the fibres need a large relative spacing (spacing/size of the fibre core). The minimum spacing between 2 fibres is 5 dark pixels, i.e. 2.66 x Ø fibre core diameter, as shown below.


24 o. 22.2 1.8


13 9.5

erule Arcap plate o25mm

ST/PC Boot 90DPm

Corneae°, Fondle

MOP USConec 200IP150/180000/

r Galnelnokp4,Bmm I r


1000 mm t 100 mm Passage Franche Fibre re nue ue0 200 72 mm

Ç.1ine inox o 4 Prom


2003 mm 100 mm 2000mn1 t 10Omm

Figure 7 Distance between fibres at the slit

These extremities have to guarantee a good parallelism and a good alignment of the fibres to optimise the coupling with the spectrograph. The fibres are cemented in the mechanical sub-slit and polished (flat polishing). Each sub-slit consists of 16 fibres (see Figure 8).

Figure 8 Preliminary design of the sub-slit


A full end-to-end prototype, with each component of the design in order to check the feasibility, and better understand the performance of the fibre link, has been manufactured. The design of the prototype fibre system is presented below (Fig. 9) and the manufactured hardware is shown in Fig. 10.

Figure 9 Scheme of the fibre prototype

Space between 2 fibres : 190 µm Fibre core: 150 µm


Stainless steel armoured cable

Vaccum feedthrough M16

Measurement fibre 16 input ferrules

Front -End sub assembly tubing with PEEK 500pm

-_ -_











-Figure 10 Picture of the fibre prototype

No difficulties were encountered by SEDI on the manufacturing on this bundle of 16 fibres.

The position of the connector along the fibre link is still under discussion. In order to facilitate the integration of one thousand fibres at the front end level, a single connector, shown in Fig. 11, will be placed behind the focal plate.

Figure 11 Ferrule mating sleeve

In future other tests will be performed with the ferrule mating sleeve to further investigate the performance.


4.1 FRD measurement

The test bench used for the FRD measurement is described below in Fig. 12, ref [4]. The shape of the projected spot is flat and its size is Ø100µm for a fibre core of Ø150µm. The centering of the spot on the fibre core is checked using a


LED I Diffuser& Pinhole Collimator (Mitutoyo) Motorized iris Beam Splite Lunette to check the spot on the fibre core


Mitutoyo 10X Infinity conjugat CCD Fibre- CCD can be exchange Fibre 100 90 75 FRD L 4 Output F/# 5 6 F/2.5 F/3 F/4 F/5 F/6

viewing system. The transmission is measured in two sequences, first with a direct measurement of the spot, and second the measurement after the slit.

Figure 12 FRD measurement bench

The tested fibre is Polymicro FIP 150/180/200µm. A first measurement has been done on a sample of bare fibre at 530nm and the FRD results are shown in Fig. 13.

Figure 13 FRD curves of bare fibre

The losses due to the FRD with an aperture of F/3.65 in entrance is estimated at 8% at F/3.5

A sample of the prototypes fibres were then tested to measure the FRD of end-to-end system and the results are shown in Fig. 14.


100 95 90 85 80 75

FRD of 6 fibres of the prototype


2 2.5 3 Output F/# 3.5 4

-Fibre 4

-Fibre 6

-Fibre 9

-Fibre 10

-Fibre 14

-Fibre 15

85 80 75 0 c 70


65 C co L 60 55 50 2

Transmission of the complete prototype at 660nm

2.5 3 F/# at output 3.5 Fibre 4 Fibre 6 Fibre 9 Fibre 10 Fibre 14 Fibre 15

Figure 14 FRD curves of prototype end-to end fibre system

The average of the losses due to the FRD with an aperture of F/3.65 in entrance is estimated at 14% at F/3.5

4.2 Transmission measurement

The same fibre test bench, as shown in Fig. 12, could also be used to measure the absolute transmission and the results for six test fibres are shown in Fig. 15.


90 85 80 75 C o 70 C

i 65


60 55 50

Transmission of the complete prototype at 660nm with gel


2.5 3 3.5 4

F/# at output

- Fibre 14

Fibre 14 with gel

Fibre 9

Fibre 9 with gel

These results take into account all the effects: gluing of the entrance input, gluing at the connector, vacuum feed-through, gluing at the slitlet and different kinds of tubing.

The important standard deviation is probably due to the difference of the size between the fibre (180µm on the cladding) and the hole of the connector (195µm). The maximum decentring is 15µm which corresponds to a loss of 13%. For the final design, the size of the fibre should be adapted to the size of the hole in order to minimise these losses.

The global transmission shown in Fig. 15 is improved by 9% for the fibre 14 and 15% for the fibre 9 at F/3.5 with the use of index matching gel (which eliminates Fresnel losses and the imperfection of the polishing of the connector). The results are shown in Fig. 16.

Figure 16 Intrinsic transmission curves of prototype fibres with index matching gel

4.3 Fibre Twist FRD measurements

Each MOONS fibre is attached to a robotic Fibre Positioning Unit (FPU) which utilises two motorised rotating arms [ref 2] to position the fibre within a 50 mm diameter pick off field. As the arms rotate the fibre can be subjected to changing mechanical stress as it coils around the hardware. To check the effect of the FPU motion on the FRD of the fibre a 1m test fibre was attached to a prototype FPU to allow the FRD performance as a function of FPU position to be measured. The layout of the FPU and test equipment used in the FRD test is shown in Fig. 17. The test fibre is routed through the FPU arm as it would be in the MOONS instrument. Input illumination is provided by an integrating sphere illuminating an F/3.3 input lens (not shown in Fig.17 ref [3]). The output beam from the fibre, indicated by the orange arrow in Fig. 17, is measured using a test camera operating in the RI-band. The results of FRD tests with the FPU in its datum position (shown in Fig. 17), rotated fully anti-clockwise, and rotated fully clockwise showed a peak to valley variation of less than 2% in throughput, measured within an F/3.3 output beam. The FRD variation is within permissible limits.


FRD, Energy within F/33 Aperture 0.76 -0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.70 10-Feb


FRD F/3.3

01 -Mar 21 -Mar 10-Apr 30-Apr

Date T w a r


1 0 s s a á 3 4 a


s o







FRD Test Camera

13 14 16 161'


Figure 17 Picture of a test fibre mounted on to a Fibre Positioning Unit (FPU)

A life test was then performed where the FPU was driven through it full range of travel, continuously, until the FPU performance began to fail. At regular intervals during the life test the FPU motion was temporarily paused to enable an FRD test to be performed. The measured FRD variation over the 11 week period of the life test is shown in Fig. 18. The average throughput, measured with an F/3.3 output cone, is 73.7%, with a peak to valley variation of 2.4%. During the test period the FPU completed in excess of 100,000 positioning moves, equivalent to an on telescope lifetime of TBD years, and the fibres showed no significant change in FRD during this time.



In this paper, we have described the design of the MOONS fibre developed during Phase B. The table below summarizes the principal technical requirements for the fibre assemblies:

Number of fibres 1024

Number of bundles 64 bundles of 16 fibres

Fibre length 10 m

Sky aperture 1.05 arcsec

Fibre diameter 150/180/210 µm

Wavelength range 0.64 – 1.8 µm

Input numerical aperture (conversion

realized with coupling microlens) Nasmyth: F/15 to F/3.65 into the fibres

Output numerical aperture F/3.5

Inter object spacing 5 dark pixels (2.66 x Ø fibre core) Table 1 Summary matrix

These tests show that the absolute transmission end-to-end transmission of the fibre without the microlens, including Fresnel losses, internal transmission, FRD and connector with gel is 70% (average) at F/3.65 and collected at F/3.5 at 660nm. Furthermore the FRD has been shown to be unaffected by the motion of the fibre positioning unit and is stable over the expected life time of the MOONS instrument.

The study of the fibre system is based on a close collaboration with the overall project team and also with industry in order to avoid delays, and to reduce costs and eliminate risks during the manufacturing and integration phase.


[1] Cirasuolo M., et al. “MOONS: an optical and near-IR multi-object spectrograph for the very Large telescope”, Proc. SPIE 9147 (2014).

[2] Montgomery D., et al. “Development of the fibre positioning unit of MOONS”, Proc. SPIE 9908 (2016). [3] Guinouard I., et al. “Development of the fibres of MOONS”, Proc. SPIE 9151 (2014).


Documenti correlati

In Rosales convivono per prodigio poetico la fascinosa inconsistenza del mito e la verità scabra e GROHQWHGHOO¶XRPRPHVVRGLIURQWHDVHVWHVVR(VWHUODGRQQD da lui

During the transfer of data to the tax authorities on the availability of real property subject to taxation from physical persons, identification of addresses of buildings in

Other forms of enforcement, on the other hand, lend themselves to almost complete automation, such as in the case of enforcement over (at least certain types of)

Dopo avere determinato le due possibili soluzioni del fit del ramo anomalo di ω Cen- tauri, ci proponiamo di determinare le possibili soluzioni del fitting del bulk della

Le scelte degli autori dei testi analizzati sono diverse: alcuni (per esempio Eyal Sivan in Uno specialista) usano materiale d’archivio co- me fotografie e filmati, altri invece

40 This was a sentence which, in effect, represented an exception in the panorama of jurisprudential arrests and of doctrinal opinions, which bound together the

Mi riferisco alla pluralità delle Medicine – Convenzionale, Complementari, Tradizionali – ed al loro fecondo interscambio, alla valutazione della loro efficacia e appropriatezza,

In this case, the mixing process increases the input-referred noise power of the driver stage by a factor of less than On the other hand, if low-side mixing is used, the mixing

A rare association of infra-diaphragmatic sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) (Rosai-Dorfman disease) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the same

The technical solution is the unique convergent anastomosis of the basi- lar trunk, which guarantees permanent blood flow to the brain stem, where the vital command centres of

Siamo così venuti, per un verso, ad affidarci alla «riforma continua», alla novellazione anche di parte generale disgregante (le ripetute e contrastanti modifiche della

In this work we present Amaretto, an active learning framework for money laundering detection that combines supervised and unsupervised learning techniques, taking advantage of


More than thirty years ago, Bjorken suggested a possible way to detect the creation of decon- fined QCD matter in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei: due to interactions with

Ripercorriamo ora i medesimi passi della costruzione della scala pitagorica, includendo un fattore primo in più nella categoria dei numeri (20): la base teorica aggiunge al

- the shear strength values by EN 1193 specimens, resulting systematically higher, even if the way of shear breaking was very similar to the full size joints, indicates the limits of

NUMERO 3 - dicembre 2011 ISSN 2036 1602 REDISCOVERING BOLOGNA’S HISTORIC CENTRE.. By Architect Stefano

The proposed protocol, Cluster based Adaptive Efficient Power Aware Routing (CAEPAR) consists of Cluster mechanism with energy efficient load balanced congestion


Then, another rover (characterised with better mobility and generally faster) responsibility is to collect them and deliver to specified location. In time when SFR arrive to

careers have been monetized by parents and managers across the whole history of cinema. Countries such as Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom have

A suitable SoN, K+d, has been used firstly requiring the drift chamber prese- lection (Sect. Then, a set of clusters in the event is selected, coherently with what done in the