• Non ci sono risultati.

Community, Siblings, Heritability and the Risk for Drug Abuse


Academic year: 2021

Condividi "Community, Siblings, Heritability and the Risk for Drug Abuse"

Mostra di più ( pagine)

Testo completo



Community, Siblings, Heritability and the Risk for Drug Abuse

The article by Kendler et al. (1) in this issue of the Journal reports the results of an extended twin-family study of drug abuse. Using a Swedish nationwide registry of twins and siblings, the authors were able to assemble a large, ge- netically informative data set. This data set was then linked with census, pre- scription, medical, and legal records to compile a listing of which individuals were likely to have drug abuse. Using this approach, the authors were able to model the family resemblance for drug abuse and estimate the contributions of genetic and environmental influences. The major findings of the study are that drug abuse is substantially heritable in both males (55%) and females (73%) and that shared environmental factors were present in males but not in females.

Socioeconomic status and neighborhood deprivation both predicted drug abuse, and a substantial portion of the shared environmental influence on drug abuse was a community-wide, not household, influence.

While on one hand the article con- firms findings from previous twin and adoption studies that drug abuse is highly heritable (2–4), it also rep- resents a major methodological advance. Previous studies have all relied on twin or adoptee self-report, whereas this study used reports from population-wide registries and thus offers independent confirmation of ge- netic and environmental influences on drug abuse. While finding genetic effects strengthens the case for investing in studies aimed at understanding the molecular biological underpinnings of the genetic influences on drug abuse, the evidence for family- and community-wide influences on drug abuse are equally important. One problem that bedevils epidemiological studies of drug abuse is understanding the direction of effects. Do individuals or families with drug abuse suffer from“social drift” into a deprived environment, or does a deprived environment cause drug abuse (5)? While the study by Kendler et al. cannot completely disentangle the direction of effects, the authors do demonstrate that above and beyond family-wide influences, there is a community-wide effect on drug abuse, suggesting that de- prived communities exert an effect on the development of drug abuse. This sug- gests that community-wide prevention or intervention programs could ameliorate the development of drug abuse. The example of smoking rates declining through public health efforts suggests that declines in drug abuse could be achieved. On the level of family-wide effects, a finding of note is that years of cohabitation influence the risk of drug abuse, suggesting direct social transmission of drug abuse and a potential target for intervention or prevention strategies. This result should serve as a reminder to clinicians that when one member of a household is experiencing drug abuse, it places other members, particularly younger siblings, at risk (6).

When one member of a household is experiencing drug abuse, it places other members, particularly younger

siblings, at risk.

140 ajp.psychiatryonline.org Am J Psychiatry 171:2, February 2014


Another issue clearly demonstrated by this article is that the availability of large, integrated data sets available to researchers allows for important scientific advances to occur. This study utilized data on over 2.5 million individuals. While the Nordic countries have long been known for their well-developed integrated records system, it is unfortunate that the United States does not currently have similar capacities to conduct this sort of research, as is possible in Sweden. This is a critical public health issue, as both molecular biological as well as epidemiological studies will need large data sets in order to make substantial advances. While considerable media attention has been given to the issue of how private companies are collecting vast troves of data“donated” by users or how government-funded security apparatuses are col- lecting data, the absence of large-scale, integrated efforts on the United States public health side is striking. The advancement of understanding the social and biological influences on psychiatric disorders will almost certainly require studies on the scale of this project, if not larger.


1. Kendler KS, Maes HH, Sundquist K, Ohlsson H, Sundquist J: Genetic and family and community environmental effects on drug abuse in adolescence: a Swedish national twin and sibling study. Am J Psychiatry 2014; 171:


2. Agrawal A, Lynskey MT: Are there genetic influences on addiction: evidence from family, adoption, and twin studies. Addiction 2008; 103:1069–1081

3. Kendler KS, Karkowski LM, Neale MC, Prescott CA: Illicit psychoactive substance use, heavy use, abuse, and dependence in a US population-based sample of male twins. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57:261–269 4. Kendler KS, Myers J, Prescott CA: Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of can-

nabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64:1313–1320 5. Dohrenwend BP, Levav I, Shrout PE, Schwartz S, Naveh G, Link BG, Skodol AE, Stueve A: Socioeconomic status

and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue. Science 1992; 255:946–952

6. Brook JS, Whiteman M, Brook DW, Gordon AS: Sibling influences on adolescent drug use: older brothers on younger brothers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991; 30:958–966


From the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver. Address correspondence to Dr. Hopfer (christian.hopfer

@ucdenver.edu). Editorial accepted for publication November 2013 (doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13111508).

The author reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Am J Psychiatry 171:2, February 2014 ajp.psychiatryonline.org 141



Documenti correlati

Termina qui questo breve excursus in cui l’ambito della ricerca viene allargato e analiz- zato in maniera retrospettiva e che dimostra come non solo gli edifici e gli spazi ma anche

Micronuclei, genetic polymorphisms and other biological parameters as early biomarkers for the risk of cancer. Supervisor:

Epidemiology of Drug Abuse takes the long view, cogently outlining what the book calls "the natural history of drug abuse" and redefining its complex phenomena to reflect

Colliver, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland..

Andrea Affaticati, MD Department of Mental Health Local Health Service Parma, Italy Maria Lidia Gerra, MD Department of Neuroscience Unit of Psychiatry University of Parma Parma,

Patients are at risk for heart rhythm or heart rate abnormalities or respiratory depression with increased dosing..

(C) H&E staining of mammary outgrowths originating from CD24 + CD49f hi basal cells sorted from mammary glands of 5-week-old Stat3 fl/fl ;K14-Cre 2 and Stat3 fl/fl ;K14-Cre

Edited by: Alfredo Meneses, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico Reviewed by: Tomiki Sumiyoshi, National Center

Stando alla rassegna critica degli studi sulle classi lavoratrici offerta dal saggio di Angelo Moro sulla sociologia francese degli ultimi trent’anni, si può accogliere l’impostazione

La Ruta Destroy di Valencia è stata, negli anni Ottanta, un movimento musicale giovanile diventato oggetto di un allarme sociale nella società del proprio tempo; il

Daniel Pennac, pseudonimo di Daniel Pennacchioni (Casablanca, 1º dicembre 1944), è uno scrittore francese. 3.1 Ciclo di Malaussène. 3.1.1 Serie in due volumi Le Cas Malaussène. Il

The metastatic mouse model using highly metastatic MTT cells that was recently developed as described above can be used for testing drugs for advanced metastatic disease

Foreign investors may invest in business opportunities in Iran through contractual arrangements in any type of investment other than direct investment. This

Voxels count for each method and density cutoff is shown for AF (B), medial CST (C), and lateral CST (D) portion reconstructions; data reported are averaged over subjects and

compliant con le richieste di tempestiva e robusta informativa imposte dai creditori e nel concordato dal Tribunale. La presenza dell’I.A. pertanto, tipicamente rinvenibile

Gli effetti indotti dalla materia prima, (legati a cultivar, indice di maturazione, contenuto d’acqua, tempo e condizioni adottate durante lo stoccaggio delle

• Heroin: The most frequently cited key finding, reported by 10 of 19 CEWG area representatives (Atlanta; Baltimore/Maryland/Washington, DC; Boston; Cincinnati;

CDC is working to reverse the prescription drug overdose epidemic by focusing on three areas that are both central to the CDC mission and complementary to the work of our

Isobolographic representation also suggests that the 1:5 constant concentration ratio combination of JWH-018 and JWH-073 is additive for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase

• To assist drug partnerships and their commissioning staff to clearly specify the required quality and outcomes, facilitate continuous improvement in service design to better

Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations, 75 published by the Na- tional Institute on Drug Abuse, synthe- sizes research on drug abuse treat- ment for