Present continuous – future use

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Present continuous – future use

We can use the present continuous for the future when we are talking about an

arrangement. This could be an arrangement with somebody else.

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For example:

I’m going to the cinema with Darren tonight.

Or just with ourselves …

Really? I’m staying in and watching TV.

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The important thing is that something happened before now.

Sometimes there is very little difference between the present continuous

(arrangement) and going to (intention from before now).

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Present simple – future use

We can use the present simple for the future when we are talking about facts,

e.g. timetables and fixed times.

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The train leaves at six o’clock.

Manchester United play Liverpool on Saturday.

The course ends next week.

The film starts at eight o’clock.

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Of course, somebody arranged all these things, but it isn’t necessary to say so.

They are not intentions either. They are simple facts, so we use the present

simple.

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Look at the sentences below. For each one, choose the better answer A or B

I asked you to give this to Mr. Hinton.

A. It’s OK, I’ll give it to him after lunch.

B. It’s OK, I’m going to give it to him after lunch.

Would you like to go to the football match on Saturday?

C. Sorry, I’m visiting my grandmother.

D. Sorry, I visit my grandmother.

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What’s the problem – are we late?

A. Well, the film will start at seven o’clock.

B. Well, the film starts at seven o’clock.

This soup’s awful.

C. I know. So are you going to tell the waiter?

D. I know. So are you telling the waiter?

Have you told your Father yet?

E. No, I do it later.

F. No, I’m going to do it later.

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Oh, I forgot to bring the car keys.

A. It’s OK, I’m going back and getting them.

B. It’s OK, I’ll go back and get them.

Are you coming to the meeting this afternoon?

C. No, I’m seeing the dentist.

D. No, I’ll see the dentist.

Oh, I’ve spilt my coffee.

E. Don’t worry, I’ll get you another one.

F. Don’t worry, I get you another one.

Sir, Mr. Andrews wants to speak to you.

G. Tell him I’m calling him back in a minute.

H. Tell him I’ll call him back in a minute.

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Places and Buildings

1. The side of a river.

A. shore

B. bank

2. An important church, usually quite large.

C. temple

D. cathedral

3. The process of becoming weaker or poorer.

A. decline

B. recline

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4. Business involving money.

A. economy

B. exchange

5. Something you sell in other countries.

C. extract

D. export

6. Very interesting.

E. fastening

F. fascinating

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7. Popular clothes, car or music.

A. fashionable

B. common

8. A type of work, making things in factories.

C. fabric

D. industry

9. Someone who comes into a country to take the land.

E. invader

F. income

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10. A small hill, sometimes man-made.

A. mound

B. mount

11. A town beside the sea with a harbour.

C. dock

D. port

12. Political control.

E. reign

F. rule

13. To move into a place and live there.

G. settle

H. sink

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15. To continue to exist.

A. survive

B. survey

16. A simple castle.

C. tower

D. palace

17. Buying and selling things to make money.

E. trade

F. purchase 18. Rich

G. wealthy

H. valuable

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York

Many important events have happened in

York’s long history. In 71 AD, the Romans built a camp at the place where the rivers Ouse and Fosse meet. They called this Eboracum. A town slowly grew beside it

and in time this became one of the leading cities of the Roman Empire.

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In the seventh century the Saxons settled within the walls of the Roman fort. They

also built a little wooden church. There has been a church on this site ever since. The present one, which dates from the

thirteenth century, is the great cathedral of York Minster.

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In 867 York was captured by Danish invaders and the town grew into an

important port and centre for trade. Danish rule continued until 944, when King

Edmund defeated them. In later years the city became part of the Anglo-Saxon

kingdom of England.

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In 1066 England was invaded by Normans under William the Conqueror. When

William came to York he built two wooden castles on earth mounds, one each side of the River Ouse. The one on the east bank was destroyed in 1190. The stone building which stands there today, Clifford’s tower, was built as a replacement in the

thirteenth century.

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By the Middle Ages, York was one of the

main religious centres of England. Besides the cathedral there were more than 40

churches, and some of these have

survived up to the present day. The city continued to be important as a port and trading centre. England’s chief export at the time was wool, and much of it left the country from York.

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In 1533 King Henry VIII took England out of the Roman Catholic Church. Because so much of York’s economy was in the hands of the churches, the city suffered greatly.

Its decline continued until the eighteenth century, when it began to be a fashionable place to live and visit. Many wealthy

people from all over the north of England built town houses in the city.

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In the nineteenth century York became an important railway centre, and this has

continued ever since.

Also, two families who sold chocolate from shops, Rowntree’s and Terry’s, built

factories. These have grown into York’s leading industry.

Since, then some new industries have

arrived, but York is still a city where visitors can walk along ancient streets and

experience its long and fascinating history.

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Are the sentences below true or false?

The town of Eboracum was built by the Romans.

There has been a Saxon church in York since the seventh century.

York has been ruled by Danes, Anglo-Saxons and Normans.

Clifford’s Tower was built by William the Conqueror.

In the Middle Ages, York was a major port for the export of wool.

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King Henry VIII destroyed all the old churches in York.

York’s economy declined in the sixteenth century.

Many rich people moved to York because of the railways.

The only industry in York today are railways and chocolate.

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Now look at the following pairs of sentences. All of them are similar to the sentences in the text. For each pair decide which

you think is correct.

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1.a. Many important events happened in York’s long history.

b. Many important events have happened in York’s long history.

2.a. In the seventh century the Saxons built a wooden church in York.

b. In the seventh century the Saxons have built a wooden church in York.

3.a. There was a church on this site since the seventh century.

b. There has been a church on this site since the seventh century.

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4.a. Danish invaders captured York in 867.

b. Danish invaders have captured York in 867.

5.a. William the Conqueror built two wooden castles beside the River Ouse.

b. William the Conqueror has built two wooden castles beside the River Ouse.

6.a. One of them stood until 1190.

b. One of them has stood until 1190.

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7.a. Some churches from the Middle Ages survived until the present day.

b. Some churches from the Middle Ages have survived until the present day.

8.a. In the Middle Ages, England’s chief export was wool.

b. In the Middle Ages, England’s chief export has been wool.

9.a. New industries arrived since the nineteenth century.

b. New industries have arrived since the nineteenth century.

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Past simple

We use the past simple for events in the past where:

We say the time of the event.

We know the time of the event.

The time of the event is important.

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Present perfect

We use the present perfect for events in the past:

When the event started in the past and is still happening now.

When the time of the event isn’t important.

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Although these events happened in the past, or began in the past, the important time is now. That’s why we call it the present perfect

tense.

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