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(1)

Do you know all the following words?

1. slowly by across at

2. looking seeking watching looked

3. modern current recent old

4. those them climbers men

5. laying lying lain lay

6. ancient previousold earlier

7. absolutecomplete pure total

8. label ticket marker sticker

9. rest leave position situate

10. equipment gear things kit

(2)

Mallory and Irvine

On 1° May 1999, five climbers were walking ____the upper parts of Mount Everest. They were ____ for the bodies of George Mallory and Andrew Irvine, who had died on the

mountain in June 1924. The team found a number of bodies that morning, but all from more ____ years. Then one of ____, Conrad Anker, saw something white against the rocks.

It was a dead man ___ face down. The torn

clothes were from an ___ time and the skin

was ___ white. The other climbers gathered

round.

(3)

When one of them turned over the shirt collar, they found a ___ that said G. Mallory. They realised the great George Mallory had not died of cold, he had fallen to his death like so many others.

Nobody knows if Mallory and Irvine got to the summit before they died. However, Mallory had said he would ___ a photograph of his wife Ruth there. Various ___ were found in his pockets but there was no photograph of his wife.

(4)

1. slowly by across at

2. looking seeking watching looked

3. modern current recent old

4. those them climbers men

5. laying lying lain lay

6. ancient previousold earlier

7. absolutecomplete pure total

8. label ticket marker sticker

9. rest leave position situate

10. equipment gear things kit

(5)

Past perfect

When we have two times in the past, we use the past perfect for the earlier one and the past simple for the later one.

However, it isn’t always as simple as that.

Look at this sentence:

Got to the summit refers to 1924, but it isn’t

the past perfect. Why not?

(6)

The word before makes it clear which event happened first and also because the next sentence contains an even

earlier time. Look at the three events:

1.

Mallory had said that he would leave a photograph of his wife Ruth there.

past perfect

2.

Nobody knows if Mallory and Irvine got to the summit before …

past simple + before 3.

…they died.

past simple

(7)

Look at these sentences:

He had left when I arrived.

He left before I arrived.

They mean the same thing – so the past perfect means the

same as before. You can choose to use

the past perfect or you can use before instead.

Now look at this sentence:

He had a shower when he got up.

Which event happened first?

It’s clear that he got up, then had a shower. So we don’t need the past perfect here.

Don’t use the past perfect unless you

need to make it clear

which action happened

first.

(8)

Look at the following pairs of sentences. In each pair, use the

past perfect to change one tense in sentence A so that it means the same as sentence B.

If sentence A already means the same as sentence B, don’t

change it!

(9)

1. A. She took off her trainers when she sat down B. She took off her trainers before she sat down.

2. A. He got a new car when he signed for Arsenal.

B. After he signed for Arsenal he got a new car.

3. A. The car burst into flames when it left the track.

B. The car left the track and burst into flames.

4. A. He threw up his arms when he crossed the finishing line.

B. He crossed the finishing line and he threw up his arms.

5. A. When Robert arrived at the tennis club, Christina went home.

B. Christina went home before Robert arrived at the tennis club.

(10)

1. A. She sat down when she had taken off her trainers.

B. She took off her trainers before she sat down.

2. A. He got a new car when he had signed for Arsenal.

B. After he signed for Arsenal he got a new car.

3. A. The car burst into flames when it left the track.

B. The car left the track and burst into flames.

4. A. He threw up his arms when he crossed the finishing line.

B. He crossed the finishing line and he threw up his arms.

5. A. When Robert arrived at the tennis club, Christina had gone home.

B. Christina went home before Robert arrived at the tennis club.

(11)

You will hear somebody talking about a local event.

Is the answer A, B or C?

1. In the town tomorrow there is a

A. local festival. B. coal mining exhibition C. lecture.

2. The event in the public park

A. are from 12 o’clock until 1.45. B. begin at 1 o’clock. C. begin in the late afternoon.

3. In the park there will be

A. sports and music. B. music and athletics.

C. a brass band concert.

4. What sports events will there be in the public park?

A. athletics and horse racing. B. running, jumping and throwing. C. various events.

5. What was the result of last year’s cricket match?

A. Newby won. B. It was a draw.

C. There was no clear result.

(12)

Use one of the following words only once to fill in the gap. In each

paragraph, change one of the verbs in brackets to the correct form

after around at the age ofbetween by

this time for in later until when

while then

(13)

We don’t know exactly ___ the original Olympic Games ended, but it was probably ___ 395 AD.

___ they ___(take place) every four years ___

a thousand years. ___ that, there were no more Olympic Games ___ the modern version

___(begin) in 1896.

At the Berlin Olympic ___ 1936, Jesse Owens

won gold medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres and the long jump. ___ he was given a place in the relay team and collected a fourth gold. The previous year at an athletics meeting at the

University of Michigan, Owens ___(set) six new

world records ___ 3.15 pm and 4.00 pm. Also

in 1936, Marjorie Gestring of the USA ___(win)

a gold medal for diving ___13.

(14)

In 1958, ___ coming home from Belgrade, a plane carrying the Manchester United

team ___(crash) at Munich airport and

eight players died. Ten years ___, United beat Benfica to the European Cup. The

captain that day was Bobby Charlton, who

___(survive) the air crash.

(15)

We don’t know exactly when the original Olympic

Games ended, but it was probably around 395 AD. By this time they had been taking place (take place)

every four years for a thousand years. After that, there were no more Olympic Games until the modern

version began (begin) in 1896.

At the Berlin Olympic in 1936, Jesse Owens won gold medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres and the long jump. Then he was given a place in the relay team and collected a fourth gold. The previous year at an

athletics meeting at the University of Michigan, Owens had set (set) six new world records between 3.15 pm and 4.00 pm. Also in 1936, Marjorie Gestring of the USA won (win) a gold medal for diving at the age of 13.

(16)

In 1958, while coming home from Belgrade, a plane carrying the Manchester United team crashed (crash) at Munich airport and eight players died. Ten years later,

United beat Benfica to the European Cup.

The captain that day was Bobby Charlton,

who had survived (survive) the air crash.

(17)

THE HEART OF SCOTLAND –

PERTHSHIRE

Visit Perthshire for a holiday that’s as varied as our scenery. You’ll find a huge number of sports and activities, or you may prefer to relax and visit our theatres, museums and restaurants. Use this guide to help

plan your visit, and discover why this area

has come to be known as All of Scotland.

(18)

sport

Are you interested in golfing, cycling, fishing or walking? If the answer is yes, you should come to Perthshire, because here we have some of the finest locations for all of these. If you prefer something more unusual, you could try

abseiling, river rafting, skiing, hang-gliding,

parachuting, canoeing, sailing, horse riding and lots more. You can enjoy all these as full-day or half-day activities and with equipment included, so you don’t even have to come prepared.

(19)

history

Our first visitors were the Romans, who came and saw – but did not conquer. In later years, the kings of Scotland were

crowned in Perthshire. This took place on

the Moot Hill in Scone, the ancient capital,

where a small church stands today.

(20)

wildlife

Deer are easy to see in Perthshire,

especially in the autumn. Red squirrels,

which are unknown today in many parts of Britain, are common here. You may see

on if you walk through Perthshire’s woods.

And if you ask locally where and when to watch for them, you might even see a pine martin. Perthshire’s hills and forests are

home to a wide variety of animals and

birds.

(21)

Champion trees

Would you like to see the oldest living thing in Europe? A yew tree at Fortingall is

estimated to be between 3,000 and 9,000 years old. Or perhaps the tallest hedge in the world would interest you. The

Meikleour beech hedge, planted in 1745, is 30 metres high and over half a kilometre long. Perthshire’s extensive woodlands

also contain the tallest tree in Britain – a

Douglas fir 64.5 metres high.

(22)

could, should, would and might

Here are some sentences from the text:

Red squirrels, which are unknown today in many parts of Britain, are common here.

You may see one if you walk through

Perthshire’s woods. And if you ask locally

where and when to watch for them, you

might even see a pine martin.

(23)

Here’s red squirrel.

Squirrels are common enough in Perthshire, and many other places.

You may see one quite easily.

Here’s a pine martin.

These are much less common – and more shy.

But if you look in the right places, you might be lucky.

(24)

We have already seen that we can use may with possibility.

Might is similar to may, but it signals less possibility. Another

way of saying this is that may signals a real possibility and

might signals an unreal

possibility.

(25)
(26)

Now look at these sentences:

If you prefer something more unusual, you could try abseiling, river rafting, skiing, hang-gliding,

parachuting, canoeing, sailing, horse riding and lots more. You can enjoy all these as full-day or half-day activities…

We have already seen the use of can for:

Permission Ability

But you don’t need permission to enjoy abseiling, river rafting, skiing… as full-day or half-day activities. You don’t need any ability to try them either. This is

another meaning of can – possibility.

(27)

And after you decide to try a sport, you have a choice of abseiling, river rafting,

skiing, hang-gliding, parachuting,

canoeing, sailing, horse riding and lots more. You could try any one of them.

So could is similar to can, but it signals

less possibility. Another way of saying

this is that can signals a real possibility

and could signals an unreal possibility.

(28)

So we have two modals which sometimes mean the same

thing…

(29)

Like can, we also use could for permission.

When we want to ask for

permission, or make a request, we often use could, the unreal form, to

sound especially polite.

The normal answer to Could I…?

is Yes, you can. / No, you can’t.

(30)

We also use could for ability when we are talking in an

unreal way.

As well as could and might, there are two other unreal

modals in the text.

(31)

Would you like to see the oldest living thing in Europe? A yew tree at Fortingall is estimated to

be between 3,000 and 9,000

years old. Or perhaps the tallest hedge in the world would

interest you.

Like could, we also use would

for making polite requests.

(32)

We also use it for invitations.

Are you interested in golfing, cycling, fishing or walking? If the

answer is yes, you should come to Perthshire…

we use should for giving

advice.

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