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The International Malcolm X: The Significance of Travel in the Ideological Evolution of “the Angriest Black Man in America”

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Il secondo capitolo riprende da questo punto, esattamente dodici mesi prima dell'assassinio di Malcolm, avvenuto per la prima volta in Medio Oriente e in Africa nel ruolo di emissario di Elijah Muhammad. Questa analisi conclude che nel contesto dell'ultimo anno di vita di Malcolm X, il viaggio è stato un aspetto fondamentale della sua evoluzione ideologica.

INTRODUCTION

5 Les Payne and Tamara Payne, The Dead Are Arising: The Life of Malcolm X, Liveright Publishing Corporation, New York 2020, p. 8 Malcolm X referred to himself by this appellation, echoing the press's accusations against him (Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, p. 397).

IN THE UNITED STATES

Fard, the founder of the Nation and predecessor of Robert Pool, better known by the Muslim name Elijah Muhammad. In light of these positions, integration was never seen by Malcolm X and the rest of the nation's followers as a viable solution to alleviate black people's problems in the United States.

OUTSIDE THE NATION OF ISLAM AND AMERICA

IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT (APRIL−MAY 1964)

The transcript of the speech appears in Lomax, When the Word Is Give, pp. These idyllic descriptions of racial harmony form a leitmotif in the chapter of the autobiography devoted to the Hajj. They also recall the tone adopted in the accounts of the 1959 trip, where the idealization of the foreign experience seemed to have been used as propaganda for the nation.

This was undoubtedly a source of excitement, which partly justifies the biased account of events. There is one more point regarding Malcolm This interpretation, in turn, would have led to Malcolm X's reconsideration of the white man as someone who is not biologically racist.

In concluding the analysis of Malcolm X's time in the Muslim world, there is a passage from the Autobiography that underlines how, despite his recent fascination with Muslim principles of racial equality, Malcolm X could not ignore, as Edward E. About With the content of the passage quoted above, it is important to note the concept of the philosophical and cultural return of African Americans to their homeland. The government of the United States is a government of the white people by the white people and for the benefit of the white people.

But when I was in Africa, in Ghana, in May, I spoke with the Algerian ambassador, who is extremely militant and a revolutionary in the truest sense of the word (and has his credentials as having led a successful revolution against oppression in his country). In focusing on racial consciousness, however, the point of the speech that deserves more attention concerns the self-perception of the Negro.

THE SECOND, LONGER INTERNATIONAL TOUR (MAY−NOVEMBER 1964)

Upon his return to the United States, Malcolm X's schedule remained as busy as that of the recent trip. In the near future, the OAAU would seek the help of its friends in the UN to file a complaint against the US for its violation of the human rights of African Americans.246. Four days earlier, Malcolm to practice the fight against the OAU. black fight for.

History is a people's memory, and without a memory man is degraded to the level of the lower animals. What can be gleaned from this segment of the speech is a confirmation of how consciousness was always an indispensable element of Malcolm X's vision of the black struggle. This represented the start of a five-month international journey in which Malcolm X lobbied for the recognition of African-American human rights through his new organization.

Issued on July 17, the memorandum was conceived as an appeal to African heads of state to mobilize against the United States government's unjust treatment of the black population. The issue, officials say, would benefit critics of the United States, communist and non-communist, and help undermine the position the United States has claimed for itself as the leader of the West in the advocacy of human rights .300. This condemnation was unprecedented: in the interview with Wallace in early June, the public attack on the Nation had targeted the immorality of Elijah Muhammad; now Malcolm X was targeting the foundations of the "pseudo-religious" organization.

327 The Kikuyu are a Kenyan ethnic group that in the sixties represented about a fifth of the African country's population (Sherwood, Malcolm X: Visits Abroad, p. 99). Du Bois showed that355 in the 1960s the conditions were not yet there for a similar project to succeed, not even by appealing to solidarity among the world's black people.

THREE EUROPEAN INTERLUDES IN THE FINAL MONTHS (NOVEMBER 1964−FEBRUARY 1965)

A summary of the topics discussed (which included American domestic and foreign policy, nonviolence, religion, and many others) shows that Malcolm X's approach remained largely provocative, and his general attitude was still that of a the revolutionary. Being in England, it is interesting to note the original use of the subject "West" to refer to an expanded, internationalized dimension of what Malcolm X had commonly defined as the American system or government. I live in a society whose [social, political and economic] system is based on the castration of Zik.

394 Reflecting on his different experiences with European and American reporters when he was Minister of the Nation, Malcolm X stated in the Autobiography that "the Europeans never pressed the 'hate' question. The last international trip of Malcolm X began in London on February 6, where he was scheduled to address the first congress of the Committee of African Organizations.This religion teaches brotherhood, but I must be realistic—I live in America, a society that does not do not believe in brotherhood in any sense of the term.

And as soon as the hysteria of the white public reaches the right level, they will start working on the sympathy of the white public. Roy Wilkins, executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People;. He explained this choice in the following excerpt from a speech in Detroit: “If you use the word 'Uncle Tom' these days, I hear you can be sued for libel, you know.

CONCLUSION

Four years later, the concept has not changed: in the November 10, 1963 "Message to the Grassroots" speech, Malcolm X still asserted that "after you study what happened at the Bandung conference and the results of the Bandung conference, it actually serves as model for the same procedure [to be] used to solve the problems [of African Americans].” 423. On the contrary, we are seeing a global rebellion of the oppressed against the oppressor.” 427. Passing in another controversial topic related to the period spent abroad, some scholarly literature has claimed that Malcolm X embraced a socialist ideology during his African travels.

Part of the answer was: “It is impossible for capitalism to survive, mainly because the system of capitalism needs little blood to absorb. Perhaps the most important aspect of the international experience, at least in terms of commitment, the plan involving the United Nations and denouncing the violation of human rights by African Americans was clearly a central project in Malcolm X's last year, but not was an Idea that appeared abroad: in the analysis of the speech "The Vote or the Bullet" in early April 1964, it is shown that the option of evading US jurisdiction and appealing to international courts was considered before the departure to Mecca. There is no doubt that countless interactions in Africa and the Middle East must have enriched the plan that Malcolm X had conceived in America, but it is safe to conclude that it was not a theme born out of the 1964 travels or one that greatly influenced in his ideological development.

If anything, his pursuit was one of (if not the) main reasons that drove him to plan the trips. In general and taking into account that the international mentality was already present in Črna. Further research on this foreign experience, perhaps based on new and revealing sources, could be groundbreaking in further expanding knowledge of the importance of the international context in the evolving ideology of Malcolm X, because, as he never failed to repeat in recent months, his of life, "travel really expands the human soul".439.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Clark Steve, red., Malcolm X Talks to Young People: Speeches in the United States, Britain, and Africa, Pathfinder Press, New York 2002. Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation, and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought, State University of New York Press, Albany 2002. DeCaro Louis A., Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity, New York University Press, New York 1998.

Kly Yussuf Naim, red., The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz), Clarity Press, Atlanta 1986. Lacy Leslie, "African Responses to Malcolm X," in Amiri Baraka en LarryNeal, eds. ., Black Fire: An Anthology of African-Americans Writing, William Morrow and Company, New York 1968, pp. Obama Barack, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance, Three Rivers Press, New York 2006.

Les Payne ken Tamara Payne, Dagiti Natay ket Agpangato: Ti Biag ni Malcolm X, Liveright Publishing Corporation. Koster Mickie Mwanzia, "Ni Malcolm X, Mau Mau, ken dagiti Agtutubo a Rebolusionario ti Kenya: Ti Tawid ti Transnasionalismo," Ti Pagwarnak ti Pakasaritaan ti Aprikano nga Amerikano, C pp.

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