Top PDF On the extension of large-scale forest inventories to non-forest areas

On the extension of large-scale forest inventories to non-forest areas

On the extension of large-scale forest inventories to non-forest areas

The latter are defined as forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation, and made up of introduced species or stands of indigenous species, one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. (FAO, 2001). An example is in Zimbabwe, where the big plantations established for commercial purposes are considered to be forests, but plantations on land used primarily for agriculture are excluded from this category (Moyo, 1999). Sometimes counting plantations as forest area can lead to concealing the extent of forest clearing. Some countries, such as Brazil, Colombia, Haiti, Honduras and Peru, have no legal definition for forest or tree. Moreover, it should be noted that sometimes the definition of forest may be not found strictly in the forest code but maybe in other national laws or codes. Further examples about diversification in definitions of forest are present across countries in the world. In Bolivia, for instance, the definition of forest strictly depends by the principal land use. In this country, the definition of forest land refers to those areas covered by natural forest, cultivated, intended for various uses, and also lands without trees which may be reforested. Accordingly to this national definition, meadows and pasture, with scattered trees or shrubs, do not constitute forest lands.
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Knowledge-based approaches to producing large-scale training data from scratch for Word Sense Disambiguation and Sense Distribution Learning

Knowledge-based approaches to producing large-scale training data from scratch for Word Sense Disambiguation and Sense Distribution Learning

These new resources enabled new and more sophisticated approaches to WSD. Lesk, in fact, introduced a dictionary-based algorithm in 1986 (Lesk, 1986) which, given a sentence and a target word therein, it iterates over the target senses (i.e., the possible senses in a dictionary for the target word) and, for each of them, counts the number of overlapping tokens between the sense’s gloss and the input sentence. Finally, the target word is disambiguated with the meaning corresponding to the gloss with the highest number of common words. This approach was more efficient than other expert systems available at that time (Granger, 1982; Sowa, 1983; Walker and Amsler, 1986), as it only relied on the local context of a word and a list of glosses. Moreover, it could be easily applied to a large number of texts. Therefore, exploiting knowledge bases such as thesauri, dictionaries, etc. looked very promising and, to stimulate further research on this topic, Miller et al. and Fellbaum developed the two resources that would become, from a little later, the most used within the Word Sense Disambiguation community and in other related areas: WordNet (Miller et al., 1990; Fellbaum, 1998a) and SemCor (Miller et al., 1993a). WordNet is a lexical database of senses where synonyms are grouped into synsets, which, in turn, are linked via paradigmatic relations (i.e., hypernymy, meronymy, etc.). SemCor, instead, is a subset of the Brown corpus (Kucera and Francis, 1967) where each content word (noun, adjective, adverb or verb) is annotated with its WordNet sense. These two resources, together, paved the way to the knowledge-based paradigm for Word Sense Disambiguation and steered WSD research in the direction of enumerative lexicons, opposing to Pustejovsky (1995), which was proposing a generative lexicon to induce the possible meanings of a word in a specific context by means of hand-crafted rules.
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Innovative forest multiscale management and planning: modelling and mapping tools to monitor forest ecosystems functionality

Innovative forest multiscale management and planning: modelling and mapping tools to monitor forest ecosystems functionality

The international climate change adaptation strategies provide the opportunity to account for carbon sinks in forests through the Kyoto Protocol. Globally, forests and wood products are considered important carbon sinks. Harvested Wood Products (HWPs) are receiving growing attention, considering their potentialities to be included in national Greenhouse Gas Inventories with practical and economic implications for both carbon accounting and timber market. In Italy, understanding the contribution of HWPs to the total carbon budget may have a positive role to further improve forest management and planning approaches, as well as the timber production (i.e. wood-energy chain), specifically oriented to the climate change mitigation and ecosystem adaptation. This work aims to deeper assess the main barriers and drivers for the HWPs implementation within the carbon accounting framework in Italy. After a preliminary survey on how climate adaptation policies are currently implemented at global and national scale, this work specifically addresses the most important opportunities to include the HWPs in carbon accounting for the forestry sector at landscape scales. Finally, this work mainly outlines the following challenges for including HWPs in forest management and planning processes at local scale: (i) improving the assessment of forest carbon budget in different pools through using proper simulation tools, and environmental impact analysis; (ii) further developing robust policies and regulations that make the carbon accounting approach more explicit and economically relevant; and (iii) implementing adaptive approaches to effectively consider climate change mitigation strategies in decision-making processes at landscape scale.
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Case study for the integration of faunistic data series  in selected Italian LTER forest sites

Case study for the integration of faunistic data series in selected Italian LTER forest sites

conditions there is a strong potential for eco- logical investigations. This potential has not been fully exploited yet, not only at plot level, but also for inter-site comparisons. Deadwood sampling, for example, is cur- rently implemented at several research sta- tions. Even though the plot size, the aims of studies and methods are different, the focal point represented by this common measure- ment among sites should be taken into con- sideration as a starting step toward harmo- nization. A gap is also to be recognized in data concerning consumers and biodiversity (Magurran et al. 2010). Invertebrates were monitored for three years in the frame of a pilot project ( http://www.forestbiota.org - Ferretti et al. 2006) and sporadic case studies can be found concerning other animal groups, but a continuous and coordinated monitoring is not currently performed. Though the plot scale is not suited for in- vestigations on spatial and temporal distribu- tion of animal populations, some data on consumers would be of relevance for consi- derations on their impact on primary produc- tion, organic matter accumulation and over- all evaluation of energy transformation, en- vironmental stability and quality of ecosys- tems. Within the network, insects and birds are among the most investigated animal groups (Tab. 5). Different methods are cur- rently available to survey and sample insects, depending on the aims of the study and the ecological traits of target families and study areas. Also, a wide and shared methodology is available for bird monitoring at LTER Europe level (Vadineanu et al. 2005). So, specific working groups would be necessary
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Climate change mitigation by forests: a case study on the role of management on carbon dynamics of a pine forest in South Italy

Climate change mitigation by forests: a case study on the role of management on carbon dynamics of a pine forest in South Italy

38 The Calabrian pine is a pioneer species that requires full light from above, relatively thermo- xerophilous. Calabrian pine begins to produce fruit abundantly at 25-30 years with abundant seed production every 2 years. The anemochory seed dispersal begins in March. The germination capacity is 75-80% and remains high up to 140-150 years. The natural regeneration occurs in the presence of "natural" disturbances (landslides, erosions, fires) or induced by man (cultural techniques). Optimal conditions are in open areas, on mineral soils, in the absence of grassy layers, in these cases there are 9000-10000 seedlings per hectare (Caminiti et al., 2003), while Anzillotti (1950) after 3 years from the fire reports of 40-50 seedlings per m 2 . The passage of fire facilitates the renewal that takes place in groups (Del Favero, 2008) but on large areas or following the repeated passage of fire there is the introduction and presence of the poplar species. An obstacle to renewal consists of a very consistent herbaceous or shrub layer. according to some observations made in Sila, Calabrian pines of about 400-500 years old are generally observed (Avolio and Ciancio,1985), but it can be much higher.
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Large Scale Land Acquisition

Large Scale Land Acquisition

My econometric results allow me to identify the drivers of foreign land acquisition: the potential availability of uncultivated land, namely forest land, and the association of weak land governance. This notion is in line with literature that states of countries that attract large amounts of investors but are unable to address them into beneficial impacts for the local population. Economic globalization also increases the influence of large agribusiness enterprises and international financial flows on local land use decisions, in some cases weakening national policies intended to promote a public good. Furthermore, my results show a strong attractiveness towards forest areas. During the 1980 – 2000 period, more than half of the new agricultural land across the tropics came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from non intact forests, raising concerns about environmental services and biodiversity globally (Lambin et al., 2011). Converting a forest to crop-land for biofuel production can result in much more global warming pollution than the amount that can be reduced by the biofuels grown on that land. Intensive farming, which continues to increase, has resulted in loss of natural habitats and species living in them (Haruna et. al., 2014). Forest and mixed-use woodlands are often targeted by government for agriculture expansion in order to avoid the displacement of crop land. However, the identification of such areas is more often driven by perceptions than evidence, and discriminatory views of customary land uses. “Available”, “degraded” and “underutilized”, have became epithets in common usage among proponents of large-scale land acquisitions, rendering landscapes as commodities ready for the taking.
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Distribution patterns and population analysis of threatened longhorn beetles in forest habitats of central Italy

Distribution patterns and population analysis of threatened longhorn beetles in forest habitats of central Italy

recorded for the same tree; similar aggregative behaviour was observed in other longhorn beetles (Hanks et al. 1999). The trees in which was found the highest number of marked individuals may represent a “key tree” for population viability, and could give information on the population trend during a monitoring program. In the study sites, where the distribution of suitable trees was scattered, dispersion could have been limited and have suffered of the gap effect given by large areas where no suitable habitats occur (Bosso et al. 2013). This distribution pattern may result in isolation between populations and consequently it may increase the local extinction risk (Hanski and Gagiotti 2004, Laschat et al. 2013). A low number of data was collected in the PNFC, which resulted to be a less suitable area respect to PNALM, where the species showed different patterns of abundance in the three study sites. Decaying huge trees, in the III-IV stages of decay class, mainly located in opened areas (i.e. with a low canopy closure), represented the preferred habitat of the species, like observed in previous studies (Duelli and Wermelinger 2005, Russo et al. 2011). The sun-exposed location of trees may limit the humid microclimate typical of the trunk cavities, explaining their negative association with the species. Trees colonized by R.
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The anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest ecology and dynamics

The anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest ecology and dynamics

Forest are well known to be organized in a vertical dimension (1). Temperate forests are often poor stratified where tropical rainforests consist of emergent trees, a dense foliage below them and several other layers (treelets, shrubs, lianas) until the herbaceous plants on the ground level (2, 3). The vertical order of forests is a consequence of a predictable allometric rule (4), a design constraint and the tendency of plants to allocate their resources efficiently (5). In fact, most trees will not bloom and bear fruits until they reach a certain height avoiding to be suppressed by neighbours during their growth (6). Stratification has important implications in sun detection and microclimate formation within forests (7). Many observations suggest that there might be an optimum height for the emergent and mid-story trees, reached by responding to signals in the environment (8). Therefore, it is not surprising that diversity is higher in a forest where different species can spread their crowns over a single point on the ground (9). The superimposition of many crowns is one of the mechanism that contributes to the high diversity of plant species in forests (10). However, the vertical dimension can allow high diversity only where the climate and soil conditions permit trees to attain large stature (11). Up to now difficulties to detect tree’s height by ground, lack of global canopy data and incomplete flora census has impeded to define general patterns of forest structure and biodiversity. The recent developments of powerful technologies, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and the enrichment of databases of vascular flora allows to develop analyses on global scale on these relations in forest ecosystems. Here we show that there is a global positive correlation between forest canopy height and biodiversity and that it follows a latitudinal gradient.
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The emissions of greenhouse gases from forest fires in the Mediterranean Region

The emissions of greenhouse gases from forest fires in the Mediterranean Region

Fire affects ecosystems worldwide and can impact large areas of landscape often located in remote regions. Due to these conditions ground monitoring of fire activity can be very time consuming and expensive in terms of resources involved. Therefore satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity for fire observation providing information at different spatial and temporal scales. The application of remote sensing techniques to study fire activity started in the 1990s (Robinson, 1991) using sensors which were not specifically designed for fire monitoring. One of the first applications used the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) instrument, on- board NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) platform, to identify active fires (Levine, 1996; Malingreau, 1990). Lately many other satellite sensors have been developed and our capability of fire characterization at global and regional level has been improved.
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Applications of Airborne Laser Scanning for the spatial estimation of forest structural parameters in Mediterranean environments

Applications of Airborne Laser Scanning for the spatial estimation of forest structural parameters in Mediterranean environments

For professional application purposes and, distinctively, for forest planning, it is interesting to assess the accuracy of the ALS-assisted estimation over forest areas of a certain size (e.g., an entire forest compartment). In this case, if the estimates of standing volume by ALS metrics are unbiased, a compensation of positive and negative errors can be assumed, and good overall accuracy is presumed. Floris et al. (2010) have examined this topic for a compartment of 10 ha in an alpine spruce forest where a full callipering was available, observing a difference of the estimate of the total volume less than 3% with respect to the true value. Moreover, ALS-assisted models allow to map the variability of the volume at sub- compartment level: this is an important and innovative issue for forest planning aims (e.g. harvesting planning), not achievable with the traditional forest inventory practices based on field plots only. Overall, the presented results demonstrate that AB approaches have now reached the maturity to be used for mapping forest canopy heights and stand volume and biomass under complex environments throughout large areas.
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The cortical connections of the areas of the dorsal bank of the intraparietal sulcus: histological studies and perspectives from probabilistic tractography

The cortical connections of the areas of the dorsal bank of the intraparietal sulcus: histological studies and perspectives from probabilistic tractography

From an evolutionary perspective, it has been suggested that the largest and more recent part of the PPC emerged first in primates, as compared to other mammals, to subserve their richer behavioural repertoire, spanning from visually-guided limb and hand use, to more complex objects manipulation and actions in space (Kaas et al., 2011). In addition, it is known that certain parieto-frontal processing streams underwent to a significant evolution from non-human primates to humans (Caminiti et al., 2015) and that the human brain can operate on a wider range of oscillatory regimes, thanks to communications based on temporally-dispersed communication and longer temporal delays, when compared to monkeys, as suggested by experiments about interhemispheric connections (Caminiti et al., 2009, 2013). Therefore, considering that the human PPC is not only related to visuomotor abilities, but also supports other functions that are quite lateralized, as numerical cognition (Pinel et al., 2001), working memory (Pessoa et al., 2002; Vinette and Bray, 2015), selective attention (Connolly et al., 2016) and semantic and phonological aspects of the language (see Coslett and Schwartz, 2018 for a review), it is plausible to interpret the differences across species by the higher degree of complexity assigned by evolution to the human brain. Therefore, studies on monkey models are still necessary to achieve a deeper understanding of our brain functions, also considering the ethical limitations of studies in humans.
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SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROLS ON RESERVOIR-SCALE MECHANICAL STRATIGRAPHY OF SHALLOW-WATER CARBONATES

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROLS ON RESERVOIR-SCALE MECHANICAL STRATIGRAPHY OF SHALLOW-WATER CARBONATES

The dimensional parameters of these sets were separately analyzed. For this purpose, each fracture set was selected by drawing a polygon directly in the stereonet and was independently visualized in the 3D environment (Figures 29b, 30b and 31b). This procedure allowed to easily and quickly select the fractures of interest and visualize them in 3D, in order the to better understand their orientation with respect to the model. For each fracture set was identified the average direction of intersection between the fractures and the bedding surfaces. These directions were then used to project each fracture set onto a perpendicular plane. The results are three orthorectified panels, which represent the less distorted feasible way to evaluate the distribution of the digitized fractures filtered by orientation. Obviously, not all the discontinuities were perfectly oriented with respect to the direction of projection, but being distributed around the related maxima, some of the projected planes constitute thin polygons rather than lines. To tackle this issue, that would preclude a correct evaluation of the dimensional parameters of discontinuities, a new feature was added to OpenPlot. The upgraded version of the software is now able to automatically draw and show only the major axis of a projected plane, avoiding the need of manual re-digitization of structural discontinuities, a time-consuming step required by the previous workflow (Corradetti, 2016; Corradetti et al., 2018). Once that these new orthorectified panels were obtained, the distribution of fractures has been evaluated by means of linear scan-lines, as done for the Conocchia cliff. However, due to the more complex structural architecture of the outcrop and to its irregular topographic surface (a pyramid-shaped peak), the results of the analysis were
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Classroom acoustics design: algorithms to optimize typology, extension and position of acoustic materials to improve teaching-learning activities.

Classroom acoustics design: algorithms to optimize typology, extension and position of acoustic materials to improve teaching-learning activities.

A series of simple tests have been conducted to evaluate the extents at which Oc- topus is capable of interpreting and correctly operating on the models described in the previous chapter. Octopus connects to variable ‘slider’ inputs of a parametric model and compares their values to a defined numeric output to assign a score to that same model. In this fashion the performance of a design configuration is linked to its properties, which enables the possibility to automatically iterate and improve on an overall design. Evolutionary algorithms – upon which platform is based (SPEA-2 and HypE) are stochastic search methods that mimic the metaphor of natural biological evolution and / or the social behaviour of species [115]. These algorithms are generally used to solve optimization problems. The approach of evolutionary solving is characterized by the assessment of a pool or population of design solutions, rather than a single solution. Out of this pool, individual solu- tions are selected according to their adjustment to a fitness function (a formulaic description quantifying performance goals) and new solutions may be generated through mutations and crossovers of previous elites, which are those configura- tions displaying the most favourable traits with respect to the fitness criteria. It is not within the scope of this project to assess or develop upon the specifics of any evolutionary algorithm. The applicability of an evolutionary solving mechanism to the issue of acoustic optimization of classroom spaces is merely tested.
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Marketing survey related to the on-going process of  decentralisation of cadastre service

Marketing survey related to the on-going process of decentralisation of cadastre service

In this particular case, a domain of a statistician finishes here. The making of decisions lies upon the team of Cadastral Pole, who will have to evaluate the results brought to light in the course of this study and decide the next move. Even the interpretation of the values of certain statistics is a task of a decision maker, because of the experience in the field and greater availability of technical information ( example: why are the geometricians more likely to have negative answers regarding the precision of the maps than other groups of professionals)
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Greenhouse gases exchange over and within a tropical forest in Africa

Greenhouse gases exchange over and within a tropical forest in Africa

measured at instrument level is considered to nullify at ground level. Spike fluxes were removed in two steps using the median of absolute deviation about the median (MAD) [Papale et al., 2006] and the probability distribution of the fluxes series, eliminating records lower than the 0.25% and higher than 99.75% of the distribution. Both despiking method were applied to day-time and night-time fluxes separately to account for their different magnitude. The daily partitioning was made on a global radiation threshold of 20 W m -2 . It is known that eddy flux measurements can underestimate the net ecosystem exchange during periods with low turbulence and thus limited air mixing [Aubinet et al., 1999; Goulden et al., 1996; Gu et al., 2005]. Normally the u * value is used as criterion to quantify turbulence strength and discard data below a certain threshold [Gu et al., 2005; Papale et al., 2006] but in the trunk-space, assumptions made on this approach are hardly met. In these situations a low turbulence discriminating criterion based on standard deviation of vertical wind speed σ w it is often used [Launiainen et al., 2005; Pihlatie et al., 2005b]. Anyway in this study it was not possible to use such method as fluxes showed weak dependence on σ w . Fluxes during low mixing (mostly during night) were individuated and marked but not eliminated as they have a small impact on flux daily means, the aim of this work.
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Groundwater in urban coastal areas: hydrogeochemical based approach for managing the transition areas: the example of the lagoon of Nador (Morocco).

Groundwater in urban coastal areas: hydrogeochemical based approach for managing the transition areas: the example of the lagoon of Nador (Morocco).

The urgent need for integrated approaches to water resources management in coastal regions implies performing studies on the relations between the drainage basin (catchment area) and the aquifer throughout the near coastal zone, and to develop adequate science based policies oriented to achieve sustainability goals. The Mediterranean basin is a good example of such needs, since a strong public and scientific effort promoted the application of a holistic approach for achieving the sustainable exploitation of water resources and the adoption of best management practices. This area has been object of several studies and conventions; however, discrepancies, still exist between the European rim countries and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region ones, especially related to environmental protection. Moreover, even for areas where increasing attention is paid to coastal environments, transition zones, and lagoon system protection, so far most of the interest was focused on the ecological functions of these areas and the possible development for aquaculture activities.
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DISSOLUTION OF CONCENTRATED SURFACTANT PASTE 
FROM MICRO TO PILOT PLANT SCALE

DISSOLUTION OF CONCENTRATED SURFACTANT PASTE FROM MICRO TO PILOT PLANT SCALE

The main surfactants used in several categories of detergent products, including fabric care, home care and beauty care, experience complex phase, and rheology behavior. In standard industrial processing, raw materials are diluted with solvents, such as water, to obtain the final product. Normally, a thick surfactant paste is broken into small droplets, dispersed into the bulk fluid, and finally dissolved 25 . Critical parameters, such as raw material chemistry, phase equilibria, type of solvent, temperature, and flow conditions play a key role in dissolution processes. Even if the general picture is well accepted, the mechanisms actually governing the breakage step are not well understood. During typical industrial processing, the mixing flow can induce changes of fluid morphology on the micron scale. A key role in these mechanism is played by the interfacial tension among the mixing phases 34 . When viscous stress overcomes droplet cohesive stress, due to the interfacial tension, deformed droplets can break in two, or more, satellites 35 . Alternative mechanisms can be related to surface exfoliation, or tip streaming 36 . Interaction among two or more droplets can, on the other hand, lead to the aggregates formation, or droplet coalescence 37 , that can be induced by gentle flow. 38
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Geological and structural evolution of tectonically active areas of the central Calabria Arc

Geological and structural evolution of tectonically active areas of the central Calabria Arc

A focal mechanism solution (FMS) is the result of an analysis of wave forms generated by an earthquake and recorded by a number of seismographs (Lay and Wallace, 1995; Pondrelli et al., 2006; Scognamiglio et al., 2009). To produce a reasonable FMS, at least 10 records and a good geographically distribution around the epicenter of seismograph stations need. The complete characterization of an earthquake’s focal mechanism provides important information, including the origin time, epicenter location, focal depth, seismic moment (a direct measure of the energy radiated by an earthquake), and the magnitude and spatial orientation of the 9 components of the moment tensor. And from the moment tensor, we can ultimately solve the orientation and slip of the fault. For any moment tensor, there are two possible planes. The two planes are called nodal planes, and they are at right angles to one another and intersect along the N axis. One of the planes is the fault surface, and the other is called the auxiliary plane and has no structural significance (Scholz, 2002 and reference therein).
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Assessment of Soil Shaking Features in Urban Areas

Assessment of Soil Shaking Features in Urban Areas

The progressive migration of the Calabrian Arc towards the southeast occurred, since Middle Miocene times, along a NW–SE to WNW–ESE-trending regional strike-slip fault system characterized by left- and right-lateral movements in the northern and in the southern sector of the Calabrian Arc, respectively. Such faults, dissecting the pre-existing thrust sheets, played an important role in the Neogene- Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the Central Mediterranean area. Based on structural studies supported by seismic and bore-hole data, Van Dijk et al. (2000) proposed that the whole tectonic system consisted of Middle Miocene–Early Pleistocene crustal transpressional fault zones, mainly dipping towards the NE, characterized by left-lateral and reverse kinematics. Along these structures, in correspondence of their restraining bends, extrusion of the deep-seated units of the Calabrian Arc together with underlying Mesozoic carbonate rocks have been recently described by Tansi et al. (2007). Since the Middle Pleistocene, a strong regional, still active uplift affected the northern Calabrian Arc. This has been interpreted as the isostatic response to the removal of the high-density mantle/ lithosphere root, due to detachment of the Ionian subducted slab. The Crati Basin, forming part of this zone, is bounded by the Coastal Range to the west, by the Sila Massif to the east, and by the Pollino Ridge to the north (Figure 2.2). The basin is morphologically asymmetric with a steeper and shorter fluvial drainage along its eastern border, and the Crati River flowing along the easternmost side of the valley.
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Role of the MUTYH protein in the response to oxidative damage to DNA

Role of the MUTYH protein in the response to oxidative damage to DNA

transcriptional activation and apoptosis by phosphorylating critical targets (Guan et al., 2007). Chk1 and Chk2 are targets of regulation by two signal transducers proteins, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related protein) kinases, respectively. ATM and ATR are PIKK (phosphoinositide three- kinase-related kinases) that share a number of phosphorylation substrates, even if they respond to different type of DNA damage. ATR plays a central role in the response to certain types of genotoxic agents, including hydroxyurea and UV and seems to have a central function in the S and G2 checkpoints. On the contrary, ATM has a major function for management of the G1 checkpoint and in contrast to ATR, provides a rapid protective response to an extremely lethal form of DNA damage, the DSBs. (Abraham, 2001). The main relevance for cell and organism life of this “network of genome surveillance” is reflected in the evidence that a major mechanism whereby tumor cells acquire genetic instability is through the acquisition of mutations that modify checkpoints. This feature renders them more dependent on the remaining intact pathways to promote repair and arrest the cell cycle, representing an important approach for the development of therapeutic strategies in the personalized cancer treatment (Medema and Macurek, 2011).
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