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Legal Disclaimer

The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), together with the 21 Regional Agencies (ARPA) and Provincial Agencies (APPA) for the protection of the environment, as of 14 January 2017 is part of the National Network System for the Protection of the Environment (SNPA), established by the Law June 28, 2016, n.132.

The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, or persons acting on its behalf, are not responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.

ISPRA - Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale Via Vitaliano Brancati, 48 – 00144 Roma

www.isprambiente.gov.it ISPRA, Rapporti 307/19 ISBN 978-88-448-0953-9

Extracts from this document may be reproduced on the condition that the source is acknowledged

Graphic design:

Cover design: Franco Iozzoli

Cover image: Levasseur Victor, Atlas "Levasseur", publié en 1852 a Paris, chez l’Editeur, Rue de la Parcheminerie 15

ISPRA – Communications Area

Coordination of the online publication:

Daria Mazzella

ISPRA – Communications Area

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Annual Report for submission under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

Authors

Daniela Romano, Chiara Arcarese, Antonella Bernetti, Antonio Caputo, Mario Contaldi, Marco Cordella, Riccardo De Lauretis, Eleonora Di Cristofaro, Sandro Federici, Andrea Gagna, Barbara Gonella, Federica Moricci, Ernesto Taurino, Marina Vitullo

With contributions from

Maria Vincenza Chiriacò, Riccardo Liburdi, Lucia Perugini

PART I: ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION

I NTRODUCTION

Daniela Romano Riccardo De Lauretis Marina Vitullo (§1.2.2) Chiara Arcarese (§1.2.3)

T RENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

Daniela Romano Marina Vitullo E NERGY

Riccardo De Lauretis Ernesto Taurino

Daniela Romano (§3.5.1, §3.5.4) Antonella Bernetti (§3.5) Antonio Caputo (§3.9) Marco Cordella (§3.5, §3.6)

I NDUSTRIAL P ROCESSES AND P RODUCT U SE

Andrea Gagna Barbara Gonella Ernesto Taurino

Federica Moricci (§4.4, §4.6, §4.7) Daniela Romano (§4.5, §4.8 ) A GRICULTURE

Eleonora Di Cristofaro Marco Cordella (§5.3)

L AND USE , L AND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

Marina Vitullo, Sandro Federici W ASTE

Barbara Gonella Ernesto Taurino

R ECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS

Daniela Romano

PART II: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1

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I NFORMATION ON ACCOUNTING OF K YOTO UNITS

Chiara Arcarese Marina Vitullo

I NFORMATION ON MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE IMPACTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH A RTICLE 3, PARAGRAPH

14

Antonio Caputo A NNEXES

K EY CATEGORIES AND UNCERTAINTY Daniela Romano

Antonio Caputo Marina Vitullo

ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR POWER GENERATION

Mario Contaldi Riccardo De Lauretis Ernesto Taurino

E STIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT OF COALS USED IN INDUSTRY

Ernesto Taurino Mario Contaldi

CO 2 REFERENCE APPROACH Ernesto Taurino

Riccardo De Lauretis

N ATIONAL EMISSION FACTORS

Antonio Caputo Mario Contaldi Riccardo De Lauretis Ernesto Taurino

A GRICULTURE SECTOR

Eleonora Di Cristofaro

T HE N ATIONAL R EGISTRY FOR F OREST C ARBON S INKS

Marina Vitullo

T HE N ATIONAL R EGISTRY

Chiara Arcarese Riccardo Liburdi

Contact: Riccardo De Lauretis

Telephone +39 0650072543

Fax +39 0650072657

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PREMESSA

Nell’ambito degli strumenti e delle politiche per fronteggiare i cambiamenti climatici, un ruolo fondamentale è svolto dal monitoraggio delle emissioni dei gas-serra.

A garantire la predisposizione e l’aggiornamento annuale dell’inventario dei gas-serra secondo i formati richiesti, in Italia, è l’ISPRA su incarico del Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, attraverso le indicazioni del Decreto Legislativo n. 51 del 7 marzo 2008 e, più di recente, del Decreto Legislativo n. 30 del 13 marzo 2013, che prevedono l’istituzione di un Sistema Nazionale, National System, relativo all’inventario delle emissioni dei gas-serra.

In più, come è previsto dalla Convenzione-quadro sui cambiamenti climatici per tutti i Paesi industrializzati, l’ISPRA documenta in uno specifico rapporto, il National Inventory Report, le metodologie di stima utilizzate, unitamente ad una spiegazione degli andamenti osservati.

Il National Inventory Report facilita i processi internazionali di verifica cui le stime ufficiali di emissione dei gas serra sono sottoposte. In particolare, viene esaminata la rispondenza alle proprietà di trasparenza, consistenza, comparabilità, completezza e accuratezza nella realizzazione, qualità richieste esplicitamente dalla Convenzione suddetta. L’inventario delle emissioni è sottoposto ogni anno ad un esame (review) da parte di un organismo nominato dal Segretariato della Convenzione che analizza tutto il materiale presentato dal Paese e ne verifica in dettaglio le qualità su enunciate. Senza tali requisiti, l’Italia sarebbe esclusa dalla partecipazione ai meccanismi flessibili previsti dallo stesso Protocollo, come il mercato delle quote di emissioni, l’implementazione di progetti con i Paesi in via di sviluppo (CDM) e l’implementazione di progetti congiunti con i Paesi a economia in transizione (JI).

Il presente documento rappresenta, inoltre, un riferimento fondamentale per la pianificazione e l’attuazione di tutte le politiche ambientali da parte delle istituzioni centrali e periferiche. Accanto all’inventario dei gas- serra, l’ISPRA realizza ogni anno l’inventario nazionale delle emissioni in atmosfera, richiesto dalla Convenzione di Ginevra sull’inquinamento atmosferico transfrontaliero (UNECE-CLRTAP) e dalle Direttive europee sulla limitazione delle emissioni. In più, tutto il territorio nazionale è attualmente coperto da inventari regionali sostanzialmente coerenti con l’inventario nazionale, realizzati principalmente dalle Agenzie Regionali e Provinciali per la Protezione dell’Ambiente.

Nonostante i progressi compiuti, l’attività di preparazione degli inventari affronta continuamente nuove sfide

legate alla necessità di considerare nuove sorgenti e nuovi inquinanti e di armonizzare gli inventari prodotti

per diverse finalità di policy. Il contesto internazionale al quale fa riferimento la preparazione dell’inventario

nazionale costituisce una garanzia di qualità dei dati, per l’autorevolezza dei riferimenti metodologici,

l’efficacia del processo internazionale di review e la flessibilità nell’adattamento alle nuove circostanze.

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CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 16

SOMMARIO (ITALIAN) 22

1. INTRODUCTION 24

1.1 Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change 24 1.2 Description of the institutional arrangement for inventory preparation 26

1.2.1 National Inventory System 26

1.2.2 Institutional arrangement for reporting under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of Kyoto

Protocol 29

1.2.3 National Registry System 29

1.3 Brief description of the process of inventory preparation 31

1.4 Brief general description of methodologies and data sources used 32

1.5 Brief description of key categories 36

1.6 Information on the QA/QC plan including verification and treatment of confidentiality issues

where relevant 41

1.7 General uncertainty evaluation, including data on the overall uncertainty for the inventory

totals 46

1.8 General assessment of the completeness 48

2 TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 50

2.1 Description and interpretation of emission trends for aggregate greenhouse gas emissions 50

2.2 Description and interpretation of emission trends by gas 51

2.2.1 Carbon dioxide emissions 51

2.2.2 Methane emissions 53

2.2.3 Nitrous oxide emissions 54

2.2.4 Fluorinated gas emissions 54

2.3 Description and interpretation of emission trends by source 56

2.3.1 Energy 56

2.3.2 Industrial processes and product use 57

2.3.3 Agriculture 59

2.3.4 LULUCF 60

2.3.5 Waste 61

2.4 Description and interpretation of emission trends for indirect greenhouse gases and SO 2 62

2.5 Indirect CO 2 and nitrous oxide emissions 63

3 ENERGY [CRF SECTOR 1] 64

3.1 Sector overview 64

3.2 Methodology description 70

3.3 Energy industries 72

3.3.1 Public Electricity and Heat Production 73

3.3.1.1 Source category description 73

3.3.1.2 Methodological issues 73

3.3.2 Refineries 75

3.3.2.1 Source category description 75

3.3.2.2 Methodological issues 75

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3.3.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements 79

3.4 Manufacturing industries and construction 79

3.4.1 Sector overview 79

3.4.2 Source category description 81

3.4.3 Methodological issues 83

3.4.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 86

3.4.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 87

3.4.6 Source-specific recalculations 87

3.4.7 Source-specific planned improvements 87

3.5 Transport 87

3.5.1 Aviation 88

3.5.1.1 Source category description 88

3.5.1.2 Methodological issues 89

3.5.1.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 91

3.5.1.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 92

3.5.1.5 Source-specific recalculations 92

3.5.1.6 Source-specific planned improvements 92

3.5.2 Railways 92

3.5.3 Road Transport 93

3.5.3.1 Source category description 93

3.5.3.2 Methodological issues 94

3.5.3.2.1 Fuel-based emissions 94

3.5.3.2.1.a The fuel balance process 96

3.5.3.2.2 Traffic-based emissions 96

3.5.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 101

3.5.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 102

3.5.3.5 Source-specific recalculations 103

3.5.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements 105

3.5.4 Navigation 105

3.5.4.1 Source category description 106

3.5.4.2 Methodological issues 106

3.5.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 107

3.5.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 108

3.5.4.5 Source-specific recalculations 108

3.5.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements 108

3.5.5 Other transportation 108

3.5.5.1 Source category description 108

3.5.5.2 Methodological issues 109

3.5.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 109

3.5.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 109

3.5.5.5 Source-specific recalculations 109

3.5.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements 109

3.6 Other sectors 110

3.6.1 Sector overview 110

3.6.2 Source category description 111

3.6.3 Methodological issues 111

3.6.4 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 114

3.6.5 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 115

3.6.6 Source-specific recalculations 116

3.6.7 Source-specific planned improvements 116

3.7 International bunkers 116

3.8 Feedstock and non-energy use of fuels 116

3.8.1 Source category description 116

3.8.2 Methodological issues 116

3.8.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 118

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3.9 Fugitive emissions from solid fuels, oil and natural gas 119

3.9.1 Source category description 119

3.9.2 Methodological issues 119

3.9.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 124

3.9.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 125

3.9.5 Source-specific recalculations 125

3.9.6 Source-specific planned improvements 125

4 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE [CRF SECTOR 2] 127

4.1 Sector overview 127

4.2 Mineral Products (2A) 129

4.2.1 Source category description 129

4.2.2 Methodological issues 131

4.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 136

4.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 137

4.2.5 Source-specific recalculations 137

4.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements 137

4.3 Chemical industry (2B) 137

4.3.1 Source category description 137

4.3.2 Methodological issues 140

4.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 146

4.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 148

4.3.5 Source-specific recalculations 148

4.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements 148

4.4 Metal production (2C) 148

4.4.1 Source category description 148

4.4.2 Methodological issues 150

4.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 155

4.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 158

4.4.5 Source-specific recalculations 158

4.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements 158

4.5 Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use (2D) 158

4.5.1 Source category description 158

4.5.2 Methodological issues 159

4.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 161

4.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 162

4.5.5 Source-specific recalculations 162

4.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements 163

4.6 Electronics Industry Emissions (2E) 163

4.6.1 Source category description 163

4.6.2 Methodological issues 163

4.6.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 165

4.6.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 165

4.6.5 Source-specific recalculations 165

4.6.6 Source-specific planned improvements 165

4.7 Emissions of fluorinated substitutes for ozone depleting substances (2F) 166

4.7.1 Source category description 166

4.7.2 Methodological issues 166

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4.8.3 Uncertainty and time series consistency 189

4.8.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 189

4.8.5 Source-specific recalculation 189

4.8.6 Source-specific planned improvements 190

4.9 Other production (2H) 190

4.9.1 Source category description 190

5 AGRICULTURE [CRF SECTOR 3] 191

5.1 Sector overview 191

5.1.1 Emission trends 191

5.1.2 Key categories 193

5.1.3 Activities 193

5.1.4 Agricultural statistics 194

5.2 Enteric fermentation (3A) 195

5.2.1 Source category description 195

5.2.2 Methodological issues 195

5.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 200

5.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 201

5.2.5 Source-specific recalculations 201

5.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements 201

5.3 Manure management (3B) 202

5.3.1 Source category description 202

5.3.2 Methodological issues 202

5.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 211

5.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 212

5.3.5 Source-specific recalculations 213

5.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements 214

5.4 Rice cultivation (3C) 215

5.4.1 Source category description 215

5.4.2 Methodological issues 216

5.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 218

5.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 219

5.4.5 Source-specific recalculations 219

5.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements 219

5.5 Agriculture soils (3D) 219

5.5.1 Source category description 219

5.5.2 Methodological issues 220

5.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 225

5.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 226

5.5.5 Source-specific recalculations 227

5.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements 228

5.6 Field burning of agriculture residues (3F) 228

5.6.1 Source category description 228

5.6.2 Methodological issues 228

5.6.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 230

5.6.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 231

5.6.5 Source-specific recalculations 231

5.6.6 Source-specific planned improvements 231

5.7 Liming (3G) 231

5.7.1 Source category description 231

5.7.2 Methodological issues 231

5.7.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 232

5.7.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 232

5.7.5 Source-specific recalculations 232

5.7.6 Source-specific planned improvements 232

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5.8.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 233

5.8.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 233

5.8.5 Source-specific recalculations 233

5.8.6 Source-specific planned improvements 233

6 LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY [CRF SECTOR 4] 234

6.1 Sector overview 234

6.2 Forest Land (4A) 241

6.2.1 Description 241

6.2.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use

databases used for the inventory preparation 241

6.2.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to

the LULUCF categories 242

6.2.4 Methodological issues 242

6.2.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency 245

6.2.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 247

6.2.7 Category-specific recalculations 249

6.2.8 Category-specific planned improvements 249

6.3 Cropland (4B) 249

6.3.1 Description 249

6.3.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use

databases used for the inventory preparation 250

6.3.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to

the LULUCF categories 250

6.3.4 Methodological issues 250

6.3.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency 253

6.3.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 253

6.3.7 Category-specific recalculations 254

6.3.8 Category-specific planned improvements 254

6.4 Grassland (4C) 254

6.4.1 Description 254

6.4.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use

databases used for the inventory preparation 254

6.4.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to

the LULUCF categories 254

6.4.4 Methodological issues 255

6.4.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency 259

6.4.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 259

6.4.7 Category-specific recalculations 259

6.4.8 Category-specific planned improvements 260

6.5 Wetlands (4D) 260

6.5.1 Description 260

6.5.2 Information on approaches used for representing land areas and on land-use

databases used for the inventory preparation 260

6.5.3 Land-use definitions and the classification systems used and their correspondence to

the LULUCF categories 261

6.5.4 Methodological issues 261

6.5.5 Uncertainty and time series consistency 262

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6.6.6 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 266

6.6.7 Category-specific recalculations 266

6.6.8 Category -specific planned improvements 267

6.7 Other Land (4F) 267

6.8 Direct N 2 O emissions from N inputs to managed soils (4(I)) 267 6.9 Emissions and removals from drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and

mineral soils (4(II)) 267

6.10 N 2 O emissions from N mineralization/immobilization associated with loss/gain of soil organic matter resulting from change of land use or management of mineral soils 267

6.10.1 Description 267

6.10.2 Methodological issues 267

6.10.3 Category-specific recalculations 269

6.11 Indirect N 2 O emissions from managed soils (4(IV)) 269

6.11.1 Description 269

6.11.2 Methodological issues 269

6.11.3 Category-specific recalculations 270

6.12 Biomass Burning (4(V)) 270

6.12.1 Description 270

6.12.2 Methodological issues 271

6.12.3 Category-specific planned improvements 273

6.12.4 Uncertainty and time series consistency 274

6.12.5 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 274

6.12.6 Category-specific recalculations 274

6.12.7 Category-specific planned improvements 274

6.13 Harvested wood products (HWP) (4G) 274

6.13.1 Description 274

6.13.2 Methodological issues 274

6.13.3 Uncertainty and time series consistency 276

6.13.4 Category-specific QA/QC and verification 276

6.13.5 Category-specific recalculations 276

6.13.6 Category-specific planned improvements 276

7 WASTE [CRF SECTOR 5] 277

7.1 Sector overview 277

7.2 Solid waste disposal on land (5A) 278

7.2.1 Source category description 278

7.2.2 Methodological issues 279

7.2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 289

7.2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 289

7.2.5 Source-specific recalculations 290

7.2.6 Source-specific planned improvements 291

7.3 Biological treatment of solid waste (5B) 291

7.3.1 Source category description 291

7.3.2 Methodological issues 291

7.3.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 293

7.3.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 293

7.3.5 Source-specific recalculations 293

7.3.6 Source-specific planned improvements 293

7.4 Waste incineration (5C) 294

7.4.1 Source category description 294

7.4.2 Methodological issues 294

7.4.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 298

7.4.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 299

7.4.5 Source-specific recalculations 299

7.4.6 Source-specific planned improvements 300

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7.5.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 306

7.5.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 308

7.5.5 Source-specific recalculations 308

7.5.6 Source-specific planned improvements 308

8 RECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS 309

8.1 Explanations and justifications for recalculations 309

8.2 Implications for emission levels 309

8.3 Implications for emission trends, including time series consistency 313 8.4 Recalculations, response to the review process and planned improvements 314

8.4.1 Recalculations 314

8.4.2 Response to the UNFCCC review process 315

8.4.3 Planned improvements (e.g., institutional arrangements, inventory preparation) 315

9 KP-LULUCF 317

9.1 General information 317

9.1.1 Definition of forest and any other criteria 317

9.1.2 Elected activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol 317 9.1.3 Description of how the definitions of each activity under Article 3.3 and FM and each

elected activity under Article 3.4 have been implemented and applied consistently over

time 317

9.1.4 Description of precedence conditions and/or hierarchy among Article 3.4 activities, and how they have been consistently applied in determining how land was classified 318

9.2 Land-related information 318

9.2.1 Spatial assessment unit used for determining the area of the units of land under Article

3.3 319

9.2.2 Methodology used to develop the land transition matrix 319 9.2.3 Maps and/or database to identify the geographical locations, and the system of

identification codes for the geographical locations 319

9.3 Activity-specific information 320

9.3.1 Methods for carbon stock change and GHG emission and removal estimates 320 9.3.1.1 Description of the methodologies and the underlying assumptions used 320 9.3.1.2 Justification when omitting any carbon pool or GHG emissions/removals from

activities under Article 3.3 and elected activities under Article 3.4 322 9.3.1.1 Information on whether or not indirect and natural GHG emissions and removals

have been factored out 325

9.3.1.2 Changes in data and methods since the previous submission (recalculations) 325

9.3.1.3 Uncertainty estimates 326

9.3.1.4 Information on other methodological issues 326

9.3.1.5 The year of the onset of an activity, if after 2008 327

9.4 Article 3.3 327

9.4.1 Information that demonstrates that activities under Article 3.3 began on or after 1 January 1990 and before 31 December 2012 and are direct human-induced 327 9.4.2 Information on how harvesting or forest disturbance that is followed by the re-

establishment of forest is distinguished from deforestation 329 9.4.3 Information on the size and geographical location of forest areas that have lost forest

cover, but which are not yet classified as deforested 329

9.4.4 Information related to the natural disturbances provision under article 3.3 329

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9.5.3 Information relating to Cropland Management, Grazing Land Management, Revegetation and Wetland Drainage and Rewetting if elected, for the base year 334

9.6 Other information 335

9.6.1 Key category analysis for Article 3.3 activities and any elected activities under Article

3.4 335

9.7 Information relating to Article 6 335

10 INFORMATION ON ACCOUNTING OF KYOTO UNITS 336

10.1 Background information 336

10.2 Summary of information reported in the SEF tables 336

10.3 Discrepancies and notifications 336

10.4 Publicly accessible information 337

10.5 Calculation of the commitment period reserve (CPR) 337

10.6 KP-LULUCF accounting 337

11 INFORMATION ON CHANGES IN NATIONAL SYSTEM 339

12 INFORMATION ON CHANGES IN NATIONAL REGISTRY 340

12.1 Previous Review Recommendations 340

12.1 Changes to National Registry 340

13 INFORMATION ON MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE IMPACTS IN ACCORDANCE

WITH ARTICLE 3, PARAGRAPH 14 342

13.1 Overview 342

13.2 European Commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol 342

13.3 Italian commitment under Art 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol 344

13.4 Funding, strengthening capacity and transfer of technology 348

13.5 Priority actions in implementing commitments under Article 3 paragraph 14 350 13.6 Additional information and future activities related to the commitment of Article 3.14 of the

Kyoto Protocol 351

13.7 Review process of Article 3.14 of the Kyoto Protocol 352

14 REFERENCES 353

14.1 INTRODUCTION and TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 353

14.2 ENERGY [CRF sector 1] 354

14.3 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE [CRF sector 2] 357

14.4 AGRICULTURE [CRF sector 4] 364

14.5 LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY [CRF sector 5] 373

14.6 WASTE [CRF sector 6] 376

14.7 KP-LULUCF 381

14.8 Information on minimization of adverse impacts in accordance with Article 3, paragraph 14 382

14.9 ANNEX 2 385

14.10 ANNEX 3 386

14.11 ANNEX 4 386

14.12 ANNEX 5 387

14.13 ANNEX 6 387

14.14 ANNEX 7 387

14.15 ANNEX 14 389

ANNEX 1: KEY CATEGORIES AND UNCERTAINTY 390

A1.1 Introduction 390

A1.2 Approach 1 key category assessment 390

A1.3 Uncertainty assessment (IPCC Approach 1) 396

A1.4 Approach 2 key category assessment 408

A1.5 Uncertainty assessment (IPCC Approach 2) 416

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A2.3 Uncertainty and time-series consistency 434

A2.4 Source-specific QA/QC and verification 435

A2.5 Source-specific recalculations 435

A2.6 Source-specific planned improvements 435

ANNEX 3: ESTIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT OF COALS USED IN INDUSTRY 436

ANNEX 4: CO 2 REFERENCE APPROACH 440

A4.1 Introduction 440

A4.2 Comparison of the sectoral approach with the reference approach 441 A4.3 Comparison of the the sectoral approach with the reference approach and international

statistics 442

ANNEX 5: NATIONAL ENERGY BALANCE, YEAR 2017 444

ANNEX 6: NATIONAL EMISSION FACTORS 463

A6.1 Natural gas 463

A6.2 Diesel oil, petrol and LPG 465

A6.3 Fuel oil 466

A6.4 Coal 467

A6.5 Other fuels 468

ANNEX 7: AGRICULTURE SECTOR 475

A7.1 Enteric fermentation (3A) 475

A7.2 Manure management (3B) 480

A7.3 Agricultural soils (3D) 485

ANNEX 8: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CONSIDERED AS PART OF THE ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 7, PARAGRAPH 1, OF THE KYOTO PROTOCOL OR OTHER USEFUL REFERENCE INFORMATION 499

A8.1 Annual inventory submission 499

A8.2 Supplementary information under Article 7, paragraph 1 509

A8.2.1 KP-LULUCF 509

A8.2.2 Standard electronic format 517

A8.2.3 National registry 529

A8.2.4 Adverse impacts under Article 3, paragraph 14 of the Kyoto Protocol 530 ANNEX 9: METHODOLOGIES, DATA SOURCES AND EMISSION FACTORS 538 ANNEX 10: THE NATIONAL REGISTRY FOR CARBON SINKS 550

ANNEX 11: THE NATIONAL REGISTRY 561

ANNEX 12: OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT SUBMISSION IMPROVEMENTS 564

A12.1 Results of the UNFCCC review process 564

A12.2 Results of the ESD technical review process 574

ANNEX 13: REPORTING UNDER EU REGULATION NO 525/2013 576

A13.1 Article 10 of the EU Regulation 576

A13.2 Article 12 of the EU Regulation 579

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ES.1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was ratified by Italy in the year 1994 through law no.65 of 15/01/1994.

The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in December 1997, has established emission reduction objectives for Annex B Parties (i.e. industrialised countries and countries with economy in transition): in particular, the European Union as a whole is committed to an 8% reduction within the period 2008-2012, in comparison with base year levels. For Italy, the EU burden sharing agreement, set out in Annex II to Decision 2002/358/EC and in accordance with Article 4 of the Kyoto Protocol, has established a reduction objective of 6.5% in the commitment period, in comparison with 1990 levels.

Subsequently, on 1 st June 2002, Italy ratified the Kyoto Protocol through law no.120 of 01/06/2002. The ratification law prescribed also the preparation of a National Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which was adopted by the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) on 19 th December 2002 (deliberation n. 123 of 19/12/2002). The Kyoto Protocol finally entered into force in February 2005. The first commitment period ended in 2012, with an extension, for fulfilling commitments, to 18 th November 2015, the so called true-up period. The evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol, together with the commitments fulfilled by each Party, has been finalized by the UNFCCC Secretariat.

A new global agreement was reached in Paris in December 2015, for the period after 2020. The agreement aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by holding the increase in the global temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impact of climate change. On 5 th October 2016, the threshold for entry into force of the Paris Agreement was achieved and the Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 th November 2016.

To fulfil the gap 2013-2020, the ‘Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol’ was adopted on 8 th December 2012.

The EU and its Member States have committed to this second phase of the Kyoto Protocol and established to reduce their collective emissions to 20% below their levels in 1990 or other chosen base years; this is also reflected in the Doha Amendment . The target will be fulfilled jointly with Iceland.

As a Party to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Italy is committed to develop, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as formulate and implement programmes to reduce these emissions.

In order to establish compliance with national and international commitments, the national GHG emission inventory is compiled and communicated annually by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) to the competent institutions, after endorsement by the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The submission is carried out through compilation of the Common Reporting Format (CRF), according to the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. As a whole, an annual GHG inventory submission shall consist of a national inventory report (NIR) and the common reporting format (CRF) tables as specified in the Guidelines on reporting and review of greenhouse gas inventories from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, decision 24/CP.19, in FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.3.

Detailed information on emission figures and estimation procedures, including all the basic data needed to carry out the final estimates, is to be provided to improve the transparency, consistency, comparability, accuracy and completeness of the inventory provided.

The national inventory is updated annually in order to reflect revisions and improvements in the methodology and use of the best information available. Adjustments are applied retrospectively to earlier years, which accounts for any difference in previously published data.

This report provides an analysis of the Italian GHG emission inventory communicated to the Secretariat of

the Climate Change Convention and to the European Commission in the framework of the Greenhouse Gas

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Concerning the reporting and accounting requirements, under the KP CP2 each Party is required to submit a report, the initial report, to facilitate the calculation of its assigned amount and to demonstrate its capacity to account for its emissions and assigned amount (UNFCC Decision 2/CMP.8). The ratification decision allows a joint initial report of the EU, its Member States and Iceland, to be prepared by the European Commission, and individual initial reports of each Member States and Iceland. In its initial report, Italy describes the national assigned amount as well as the commitment period reserve.

The election of LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraph 4, of the Kyoto Protocol for the commitment period 2013-2020 is also indicated in the same document; Italy has elected cropland and grazing land management activities.

Emission estimates comprise the seven direct greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride) which contribute directly to climate change owing to their positive radiative forcing effect and four indirect greenhouse gases (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide).

This report, the CRF files and other related documents are available on website at the address http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni.

The official inventory submissions can also be found at the UNFCCC website https://unfccc.int/process-and- meetings/transparency-and-reporting/reporting-and-review-under-the-convention/greenhouse-gas-

inventories-annex-i-parties/national-inventory-submissions-2018.

ES.2. Summary of national emission and removal related trends

Total greenhouse gas emissions, in CO 2 equivalent, excluding emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry, decreased by 17.4% between 1990 and 2017 (from 518 to 428 millions of CO 2

equivalent tons).

The most important greenhouse gas, CO 2 , which accounted for 81.6% of total emissions in CO 2 equivalent in 2017, showed a decrease by 20.6% between 1990 and 2017. CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were equal to 10.3%

and 4.2%, respectively, of the total CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions in 2017. Both gases showed a decrease from 1990 to 2017, equal to 9.1% and 31.8% for CH 4 and N 2 O, respectively.

Other greenhouse gases, HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 and NF 3 , ranged from 0.01% to 3.6% of total emissions.

Table ES.1 illustrates the national trend of greenhouse gases for 1990-2017, expressed in CO 2 equivalent

terms, by substance and category.

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Table ES.1. Total greenhouse gas emissions and removals in CO 2 equivalent [Gg CO 2 eq]

GHG emissions 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017

Gg CO 2 equivalent CO 2 excluding net CO 2 from

LULUCF 439,640 451,433 470,294 494,458 426,351 355,785 353,487 348,991

CO 2 including net CO 2 from

LULUCF 434,050 428,341 452,453 465,108 390,908 315,558 316,117 328,643

CH 4 excluding CH 4 from

LULUCF 48,263 50,361 50,765 48,299 46,919 43,801 43,577 43,852

CH 4 including CH 4 from

LULUCF 49,746 50,707 51,698 48,659 47,276 44,091 43,973 45,333

N 2 O excluding N 2 O from

LULUCF 26,084 27,430 28,445 27,788 18,826 17,547 17,944 17,796

N 2 O including N 2 O from

LULUCF 26,907 28,258 29,123 28,401 19,238 17,875 18,360 18,285

HFCs 444 927 2,477 7,512 11,724 14,703 15,045 15,294

PFCs 2,907 1,492 1,488 1,940 1,520 1,688 1,614 1,314

Unspecified mix of HFCs

and PFCs NO,NA 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

SF 6 408 680 604 550 394 472 399 417

NF 3 NA,NO 77 13 33 20 28 34 23

Total (excluding LULUCF) 517,746 532,419 554,106 580,600 505,773 434,044 432,119 427,708 Total (including LULUCF) 514,462 510,500 537,877 552,223 471,099 394,436 395,561 409,329

GHG categories 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017

Gg CO 2 equivalent

1. Energy 425,233 439,358 459,095 479,675 418,615 352,832 350,284 345,852 2. Industrial Processes and

Product Use 40,472 38,368 39,178 47,152 36,748 32,576 32,556 32,827

3. Agriculture 34,739 34,701 33,946 31,893 30,012 30,065 31,000 30,780

4. LULUCF -3,283 -21,919 -16,229 -28,377 -34,674 -39,608 -36,558 -18,379

5. Waste 17,302 19,993 21,887 21,880 20,399 18,571 18,278 18,249

6. Other NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

Total (including LULUCF) 514,462 510,500 537,877 552,223 471,099 394,436 395,561 409,329

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ES.3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends

The energy sector is the largest contributor to national total GHG emissions with a share, in 2017, of 80.9%.

Emissions from this sector decreased by 18.7% from 1990 to 2017. Substances with decrease rates were CO 2 , whose levels reduced by 18.5% from 1990 to 2017 and accounts for 96.4% of the total in the energy sector, and CH 4 which showed a reduction of 30.8% but its share out of the sectoral total is only 2.3%; N 2 O, also, showed a decrease of 0.8% from 1990 to 2016, accounting for 1.3%. Specifically, in terms of total CO 2

equivalent, an increase in emissions was observed in the other sectors, about 5.6%, from 1990 to 2017; in 2017 this sector accounted for 24.0% of total energy sector emissions.

For the industrial processes sector, emissions showed a decrease of 18.9% from 1990 to 2017. Specifically, by substance, CO 2 emissions account for 45.7% and showed a decrease by 48.9%, CH 4 decreased by 65.6%, but it accounts only for 0.1%, while N 2 O, whose levels share 2.1% of total industrial emissions, decreased by 90.4%. The decrease in emissions is mostly due to a decrease in chemical industry (due to the fully operational abatement technology in the adipic acid industry) and mineral and metal production emissions. A considerable increase was observed in F-gases emissions (about 354.5%), whose level on total sectoral emissions is 52.0%. It should be noted that, except for the motivations explained, the economic recession has had a remarkable influence on the production levels of most the industries and consequent emissions in the last years.

For agriculture, emissions refer mainly to CH 4 and N 2 O levels, which account for 64.0% and 34.6% of the sectoral total, respectively; CO 2 , on the other hand, shares only 1.4% of the total. The decrease observed in the total emissions (-11.4%) is mostly due to the decrease of CH 4 emissions from enteric fermentation (- 8.2%), which account for 46.2% of sectoral emissions and to the decrease of N 2 O from agricultural soils (- 16.8%), which accounts for 27.2% of sectoral emissions.

As regards land use, land-use change and forestry, from 1990 to 2017 total removals in CO 2 equivalent increased considerably; CO 2 accounts for almost the total emissions and removals of the sector (91.2%).

Finally, emissions from the waste sector increased by 5.5% from 1990 to 2017, mainly due to an increase in the emissions from solid waste disposal on land (11.8%), which account for 74.8% of waste emissions. The most important greenhouse gas in this sector is CH 4 which accounts for 89.2% of the sectoral emissions and shows an increase of 5.2% from 1990 to 2017. N 2 O emission levels increased by 42.2%, whereas CO 2

decreased by 81.1%; these gases account for 10.3% and 0.5% in the sector, respectively.

Table ES.2 provides an overview of the CO 2 equivalent emission trends by IPCC source category.

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Table ES.2. Summary of emission trends by source category and gas in CO 2 equivalent [Gg CO 2 eq.]

Category 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017

Gg CO 2 equivalent

A. Energy: fuel combustion 412,356 427,232 448,276 470,298 409,785 345,280 343,057 338,758 CO 2 : 1. Energy Industries 136,447 140,989 148,817 156,823 136,048 105,199 103,784 104,215 CO 2 : 2. Manufacturing Industries

and Construction 91,713 90,001 90,762 86,130 60,383 49,920 51,167 50,120

CO 2 : 3. Transport 100,313 111,503 121,401 126,555 113,953 104,855 102,002 98,391 CO 2 : 4. Other Sectors 75,721 75,167 78,604 91,660 90,381 77,236 78,130 78,032

CO 2 : 5. Other 1,071 1,496 837 1,233 652 459 515 326

CH 4 2,492 2,766 2,513 2,312 3,162 3,016 2,939 3,112

N 2 O 4,598 5,310 5,341 5,585 5,206 4,594 4,519 4,562

1B2. Energy: fugitives from oil &

gas 12,877 12,126 10,819 9,377 8,830 7,552 7,228 7,093

CO 2 4,014 3,971 3,236 2,537 2,622 2,574 2,483 2,351

CH 4 8,852 8,144 7,571 6,826 6,196 4,968 4,735 4,733

N 2 O 12 12 12 13 12 10 9 10

2. Industrial processes 40,472 38,387 39,197 47,171 36,767 32,595 32,575 32,846

CO 2 29,385 27,338 25,904 28,772 21,786 15,009 14,768 15,024

CH 4 129 134 73 74 60 42 48 44

N 2 O 7,199 7,701 8,599 8,251 1,224 613 629 691

HFCs 444 946 2,496 7,531 11,743 14,723 15,064 15,313

PFCs 2,907 1,492 1,488 1,940 1,520 1,688 1,614 1,314

Unspecified mix of HFCs and PFCs

NO,NA 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

SF 6 408 680 604 550 394 472 399 417

NF 3 NA,NO 77 13 33 20 28 34 23

3. Agriculture 34,739 34,701 33,946 31,893 30,012 30,065 31,000 30,780

CO 2 : Liming 1 1 2 14 18 14 12 17

CO 2 : Urea application 465 512 525 507 335 425 527 418

CH 4 : Enteric fermentation 15,497 15,319 15,048 13,709 13,530 13,695 14,039 14,232

CH 4 : Manure management 3,933 3,771 3,746 3,703 3,776 3,799 3,799 3,802

CH 4 : Rice Cultivation 1,876 1,989 1,656 1,752 1,822 1,668 1,713 1,643

CH 4 : Field Burning of Agricultural

Residues 15 15 15 16 15 16 17 15

N 2 O: Manure management 2,896 2,708 2,656 2,487 2,459 2,271 2,307 2,289

N 2 O: Agriculture soils 10,052 10,382 10,294 9,701 8,052 8,173 8,583 8,361 N 2 O: Field Burning of Agricultural

Residues 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4A. Land-use change and forestry -3,283 -21,919 -16,229 -28,377 -34,674 -39,608 -36,558 -18,379

CO 2 -5,590 -23,093 -17,841 -29,350 -35,443 -40,226 -37,370 -20,349

CH 4 1,483 346 933 359 357 291 396 1,481

N 2 O 823 828 679 614 413 327 416 489

6. Waste 17,302 19,993 21,887 21,880 20,399 18,571 18,278 18,249

CO 2 510 455 205 227 172 94 98 96

CH 4 15,470 18,223 20,144 19,907 18,358 16,595 16,288 16,272

N 2 O 1,323 1,315 1,538 1,746 1,869 1,882 1,892 1,881

Total emissions (with LULUCF) 514,462 510,520 537,896 552,243 471,119 394,455 395,580 409,348

Total emissions (without LULUCF) 517,746 532,438 554,125 580,619 505,792 434,063 432,138 427,727

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ES.4. Other information

In Table ES.3 NO X , CO, NMVOC and SO 2 emission trends from 1990 to 2017 are summarised.

All gases showed a significant reduction in 2017 as compared to 1990 levels. The highest reduction is observed for SO 2 (-93.5%), while CO and NO X emissions reduced by about 67.7% and 65.5% respectively;

NMVOC levels showed a decrease by 53.3%.

Table ES.3. Total emissions of indirect greenhouse gases and SO 2 (1990-2017) [Gg]

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 Gg

NO X 2,066 1,942 1,493 1,285 973 778 754 712

CO 7,213 7,261 4,897 3,510 3,121 2,343 2,269 2,330

NMVOC 2,001 2,034 1,602 1,348 1,124 915 899 935

SO 2 1,784 1,323 756 410 218 125 117 115

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Sommario (Italian)

Nel documento “Italian Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2017. National Inventory Report 2019” si descrive la comunicazione annuale italiana dell’inventario delle emissioni dei gas serra in accordo a quanto previsto nell’ambito della Convenzione Quadro sui Cambiamenti Climatici delle Nazioni Unite (UNFCCC), del protocollo di Kyoto. Tale comunicazione è anche trasmessa all’Unione Europea nell’ambito del Meccanismo di Monitoraggio dei Gas Serra.

Ogni Paese che partecipa alla Convenzione, infatti, oltre a fornire annualmente l’inventario nazionale delle emissioni dei gas serra secondo i formati richiesti, deve documentare in un report, il National Inventory Report, la serie storica delle emissioni. La documentazione prevede una spiegazione degli andamenti osservati, una descrizione dell’analisi delle sorgenti principali, key sources, e dell’incertezza ad esse associata, un riferimento alle metodologie di stima e alle fonti dei dati di base e dei fattori di emissione utilizzati per le stime, un’illustrazione del sistema di Quality Assurance/Quality Control a cui è soggetto l’inventario e delle attività di verifica effettuate sui dati.

Il National Inventory Report facilita, inoltre, i processi internazionali di verifica cui le stime di emissione dei gas serra sono sottoposte al fine di esaminarne la rispondenza alle proprietà di trasparenza, consistenza, comparabilità, completezza e accuratezza nella realizzazione, qualità richieste esplicitamente dalla Convenzione suddetta. Nel caso in cui, durante il processo di review, siano identificati eventuali errori nel formato di trasmissione o stime non supportate da adeguata documentazione e giustificazione nella metodologia scelta, il Paese viene invitato ad una revisione delle stime di emissione.

I dati di emissione dei gas-serra, i rapporti National Inventory Report, così come i risultati dei processi di review, sono pubblicati sul sito web del Segretariato della Convenzione sui Cambiamenti Climatici

https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/transparency-and-reporting/reporting-and-review-under-the- convention/greenhouse-gas-inventories-annex-i-parties/national-inventory-submissions-2018.

La serie storica nazionale delle emissioni è anche disponibile sul sito web all’indirizzo:

http://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/serie-storiche-emissioni .

Da un’analisi di sintesi della serie storica dei dati di emissione dal 1990 al 2017, si evidenzia che le

emissioni nazionali totali dei sei gas serra, espresse in CO 2 equivalente, sono diminuite del 17.4% nel 2017

rispetto al 1990. In particolare, le emissioni complessive di CO 2 sono pari all’81.6% del totale e risultano nel

2017 inferiori del 20.6% rispetto al 1990. Le emissioni di metano e di protossido di azoto sono pari a circa il

10.3% e 4.2% del totale, rispettivamente, e presentano andamenti in diminuzione sia per il metano (-9.1%)

che per il protossido di azoto (-31.8%). Gli altri gas serra, HFC, PFC, SF 6 e NF 3, hanno un peso complessivo

sul totale delle emissioni che varia tra lo 0.01% e il 3.6%; le emissioni degli HFC evidenziano una forte

crescita, mentre le emissioni di PFC decrescono e quelle di SF 6 e NF 3 mostrano un lieve incremento. Sebbene

tali variazioni non sono risultate determinanti ai fini del conseguimento degli obiettivi di riduzione delle

emissioni, la significatività del trend degli HFC potrebbe renderli sempre più importanti nei prossimi anni.

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PART I: ANNUAL INVENTORY SUBMISSION

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change

In 1988 the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) established a scientific Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to evaluate the available scientific information on climate variations, examine the social and economical influence on climate change and formulate suitable strategies for the prevention and the control of climate change.

The first IPCC report in 1990, although considering the high uncertainties in the evaluation of climate change, emphasised the risk of a global warming due to an unbalance in the climate system originated by the increase of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by industrial development and use of fossil fuels. More recently, the scientific knowledge on climate change has firmed up considerably by the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on global warming which states that “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal (…). There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities (…). Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations”. Hence the need of reducing those emissions, particularly for the most industrialised countries.

The first initiative was taken by the European Union (EU) at the end of 1990, when the EU adopted the goal of a stabilisation of carbon dioxide emissions by the year 2000 at the level of 1990 and requested Member States to plan and implement initiatives for environmental protection and energy efficiency. The contents of EU statement were the base for the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) which was approved in New York on 9 th May 1992 and signed during the summit of the Earth in Rio the Janeiro in June 1992. Parties to the Convention are committed to develop, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as formulate and implement programmes addressing anthropogenic GHG emissions. Specifically, Italy ratified the convention through law no.65 of 15/1/1994.

On 11/12/1997, Parties to the Convention adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which establishes emission reduction objectives for Annex B Parties (i.e. industrialised countries and countries with economy in transition) in the period 2008-2012. In particular, the European Union as a whole was committed to an 8% reduction within the period 2008-2012, in comparison with base year levels. For Italy, the EU burden sharing agreement, set out in Annex II to Decision 2002/358/EC and in accordance with Article 4 of the Kyoto Protocol, established a reduction objective of 6.5% in the commitment period, in comparison with the base 1990 levels.

Italy ratified the Kyoto Protocol on 1 st June 2002 through law no.120 of 01/06/2002. The ratification law prescribes also the preparation of a National Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emission, which was adopted by the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) on 19 th December 2002 (deliberation n. 123 of 19/12/2002). The Kyoto Protocol finally entered into force on 16 th February 2005.

The first commitment period ended in 2012, with an extension, for fulfilling commitments, to 18 th November 2015, the so called true-up period. The evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol, together with the commitments fulfilled by each Party, has been finalized by the UNFCCC Secretariat.

A new global agreement was reached in Paris in December 2015, for the period after 2020. The agreement

aims to strengthen the global response to the treat of climate change by holding the increase in the global

temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature

increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and

impact of climate change. In order to achieve this long-term temperature goal, Parties aim to reach global

peaking of GHG emissions as soon as possible and undertake rapid reductions so as to achieve a balance

between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in the second half of this century. Each

Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends

to achieve. On 5 October 2016, the threshold for entry into force of the Paris Agreement was achieved (at

least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 percent of the total global

greenhouse gas emissions, where “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the most up-to-date amount

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To fulfil the gap 2013-2020, the ‘Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol’ was adopted on 8 December 2012. The amendment includes:

 New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;

 A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and

 Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.

During the second commitment period, Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in the second commitment period is different from the first.

The EU and its Member States have committed to this second phase of the Kyoto Protocol and established to reduce their collective emissions to 20% below their levels in 1990 or other chosen base years; this is also reflected in the Doha Amendment . The target will be fulfilled jointly with Iceland.

In line with the Council’s conclusions of 9 March 2012 and the offer of the Union and its Member States to take on an 80% target under the second commitment period, the emission levels of the Member States are equal to the sum of the annual emission allocations (AEA) for the period 2013-2020 determined pursuant to Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. That amount, based on global warming potential values from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, was determined under Annex II to Commission Decision 2013/162/EU and adjusted by Commission Implementing Decisions 2013/634/EU and 2017/1471/EU. The emission level for Iceland was determined in the Agreement with Iceland.

Member States are allowed certain flexibility in meeting their AEAs: overachievement in a given year can be carried over to subsequent years, up to 2020, and an emission allocation of up to 5% during 2013-2019 may be carried forward from the following year (Article 3.2 of the Decision). Moreover, during 2013-2019 Member States may transfer part of their AEA for a given year to other Member States under certain conditions (Articles 3.4 and 3.5) and international credits can be used under certain quantitative and qualitative conditions (Article 5). In complying with the commitments of the Effort Sharing Decision, Italy used the flexibility of carrying over the surplus of AEAs for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. In the period 2013-2017 Italy made no use of project credits and performed no transfers of AEAs to other Member States, therefore no specific information is reported according to Annex XIV and XV of Implementing Regulation 2014/749/EU.

The European Council adopted on 13 July 2015 the legislation necessary for the European Union to formally ratify the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

The Council adopted two decisions:

 Council Decision on the ratification of the Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol establishing the second commitment period, and

 Council Decision on the agreement between the EU, its Member States and Iceland, necessary for the joint fulfillment of the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

In parallel with the ratification by the EU, the Member States and Iceland will be finalising their national ratification processes. The EU, its Member States and Iceland are expected to simultaneously deposit their respective instruments of acceptance with the UN in the coming months.

As a Party to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Italy is committed to develop, publish and regularly

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