** Active Common-Mode Filter**

**3.3 Common-Mode Transformer Design**

*+V**DC*

*+V**DC**/2*

*+V**DC**/2*

*-V**DC**/2*
*0*

*0*

*v*

*cm*

*v*

*s*

### , *x x*

### , *y y*

### , *z z*

### , *w w*

*+I**m*

*-I**m*

*0*

*i*

*p*

*t* *t* *t*

*t**d* *t**d*

*Fig. 3.5: Driving signals of the power converter (x, y) and the active filter full-bridge*
*(w, z) when the dead time compensation strategy is applied.*

Under the hypothesis of no magnetic saturation, the principle of superposition of effects can be used to compute the total magnetic flux.

*The first component of the magnetic flux density, B** _{VC}*, is caused by the primary
voltage of the common-mode transformer, whose amplitude changes during a grid
voltage period. The worst-case scenario is when the supply of the primary winding
is a square wave. This happens at the grid voltage zero crossings, when the the main
full-bridge is always providing zero voltage (current freewheeling). Fig. 3.6 shows
the primary voltage of the common-mode transformer during the positive semi-period
of the grid voltage (a) and around zero-crossing grid voltage (b) with the waveform

*of B*

*.*

_{VC}*v*

_{p}*v*

*p*

*+V*

*DC*

*+V**DC*

*-V**DC*

*-V**DC*

*B**vc-peak*

*B**vc*

*(a)*

*(b)*

Fig. 3.6: Primary voltage of the common-mode transformer during the positive
semi-period (a) and around zero-crossings (b) of the grid voltage with maximum variation
*of B** _{VC}* in the latter case.

*Eq. (3.2) computes the peak value of B**VC* which arises around grid voltage zero
*crossings ( f*_{sw}*represents the switching frequency while S is the effective area of the*
magnetic core).

*B*_{VC}* _{−peak}*=

*V*

_{DC}*4 f**sw**n**p**S* (3.2)

*The second contribution of the magnetic flux density component, named B**icm*, is
due to the common-mode current at line frequency flowing in the PV system which
is not attenuated by the proposed solution, as well as in all transformerless converter
solutions based on full-bridge topologies. This component has a sinusoidal waveform
*with amplitude equal to: I*_{cm}* _{−peak}*=√

2π*f*_{grid}*C*_{p}*V*_{grid}* _{−rms}*.

*Considering L**cm*the inductance of each secondary winding of the common-mode
transformer, (3.3) allows to calculate the peak value of this second flux density
*com-ponent. In first approximation, neglecting the magnetic saturation, L** _{cm}*can be

*com-puted as n*

^{2}

*/R*

_{s}*m*, where R

*m*indicates the reluctance of the magnetic core.

*It is important to note that L** _{cm}* represents the common-mode inductance of the
magnetic component when the primary winding is disconnected and not used. In this
way the common-mode transformer becomes a simple common-mode inductor.

*B**Icm**−peak*=*L*_{cm}*I*_{cm}_{−peak}

*Sn** _{s}* (3.3)

*Since i**cm* *is in quadrature with the grid voltage, the maximum variation of B**VC*

*happens when B*_{icm}*reaches B*_{Icm}* _{−peak}*, i.e. during the zero crossings of the grid

*volta-ge. Therefore the sum of B*

*Icm*

*−peak*

*and B*

*VC*

*−peak*has to be inferior to the maximum

*flux density, B*

*max*, defined for the working conditions of the magnetic core (3.4).

*B**Icm**−peak**+ B**VC**−peak**< B**max* (3.4)

The ferrite material used for this application needs to have a high magnetic flux
density and low power losses for frequencies up to 200 kHz. Materials of this kind
present a relative magnetic permeability usually lower than 5000, determining for
*typical PV system parameters a B**Icm**−peak**strongly lower than B**VC**−peak*.

**3.3.2** **Example of Common-mode Transformer Design**

The design of the common-mode transformer was realized for a 2000 VA PV grid-connected converter, the grid voltage and frequency are respectively 230 V and 50

Hz. Considering for the secondary winding of the transformer a current density of
approximately 4 A/mm^{2}(in order to obtain low Joule effect power losses) the winding
section area results equal to 2.17 mm^{2}. This represents the first design constraint.

The magnetic core was built starting from two low cost coated toroids placed side
by side. A null air gap was chosen for the ferrite core in order to minimize the
ma-gnetizing current. The dimensions of each toroid are the following: outer diameter 51
*mm, inner diameter 31.5 mm, effective area S=172 mm*^{2}*and effective length l**e*=125
mm. The chosen ferrite material was the low cost 3C90 produced by Ferroxcube,
used for general purpose transformers at frequencies up to 200 kHz. The maximum
*magnetic flux density was fixed at B**max*= 0.35 T in order to operate in absence of
magnetic saturation for working temperatures up to 70 ^{◦}C. The feasibility of this
choice in terms of ferrite material and core section area was verified as reported in
the following.

*The design can be performed by choosing the switching frequency, f**sw*, the
*DC-Link voltage V*_{DC}*and the value of the panels parasitic capacitance, e.g. C** _{p}*=600 nF.

Given a grid voltage of 230 V rms, the ground leakage current due to the parasitic
*capacitance amounts to a peak value of I*_{cm}* _{−max}*=30 mA.

*Starting from eq. (3.2), B**VC**−peak* *= 0.32 T was chosen. With f**s*=30 kHz and
*V*_{DC}*=400 V, the turns number n*_{p}*results 30, consequently n** _{s}*=

^{n}_{2}

*= 15. It was verified that these turns can be easily wound on the chosen core, obtaining a good fill factor.*

^{p}The relative permeability of the core material can be considered to beµ*r*= 2000,
*consequently the inductance for the secondary windings results L**cm**= n*^{2}* _{s}*/R

*m*= 1.6

*mH. This determines a B*

_{Icm}*= 0.0091 T that allows to validate this design since*

_{−peak}*the sum of B*

*VC*

*−peak*

*and B*

*Icm*

*−peak*is lower than the maximum working flux density

*B*

*.*

_{max}*The primary inductance of the common-mode transformer is approximately L**m*=
6.3 mH. The amplitude of the primary current waveform changes during the
grid-voltage period but in the worst case (during zero-crossings and with a triangular
wa-veform) has an amplitude equal to 0.52 A. It is important to put in evidence that the
primary current of the common-mode transformer is approximately equal to the
tran-sformer magnetizing current, therefore the Joule effect power losses are practically

referred only to the secondary windings of the common-mode transformer and result equal to 2.3 W for an injected grid current of 8.7A.

As for any electric machine design, the design procedure is iterative up to the achievement of a satisfactory result. A laboratory prototype was built according to the above design.