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formation and control 3

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Contents

Introduction 1

1 NO

x

formation and control 3

1.1 NO

x

formation mechanism . . . . 3

1.1.1 Thermal NO

x

Mechanism . . . . 4

1.1.2 Prompt Mechanism . . . . 6

1.1.3 Fuel Mechanism . . . . 7

1.1.4 N

2

O Intermediate Route . . . . 7

1.1.5 NNH Intermediate Route . . . . 8

1.2 Simplified Reaction Schemes . . . . 9

1.2.1 Löffler Scheme . . . . 9

1.3 NO

x

reducing techniques . . . 13

1.3.1 MILD Combustion . . . 14

1.3.2 SNCR technique . . . 20

2 Comprehensive model for NO emissions in a MILD combustion lab-scale burner 22 2.1 Description of JHC burner . . . 22

2.2 NO

x

formation model . . . 24

2.3 Numerical modeling . . . 28

2.3.1 Computational domain and grid . . . 28

2.3.2 Boundary Conditions . . . 28

2.3.3 Physical Model . . . 29

2.4 Results . . . 30

3 Prediction of NO emissions in a pilot-scale burner 37 3.1 Description of IPFR facility . . . 37

3.1.1 Gas Pre-Heating Section . . . 39

3.1.2 Experimental campaign n.1 . . . 42

3.1.3 Experimental campaign n.2 . . . 44

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Contents

3.1.3.1 FTIR System Description . . . 45

3.2 Numerical modeling . . . 51

3.2.1 Computational domain and grid . . . 51

3.2.2 Boundary Conditions . . . 54

3.2.3 Turbulence Model . . . 57

3.2.4 Turbulence/chemistry interactions and kinetic mechanisms . 59 3.2.5 NO

x

formation model and ammonia modeling . . . 60

3.2.6 Radiation model and radiative properties . . . 61

3.3 Results . . . 63

3.3.1 Experimental campaign n.1 . . . 63

3.3.1.1 Swirl Duct . . . 63

3.3.1.2 Burner . . . 66

3.3.2 Experimental campaign n.2 . . . 71

Conclusion 75

Appendix A 77

Appendix B 78

Appendix C 82

Bibliography 84

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