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(15) !"#$%. &('*). +-,/.1032/4657,98;:<,. =?>/@A@A>CBEDAF GH@JIK9DAL MHDNFO>QPEPRDJISF-LIUT9L MWVXELMYPRLUDA@[Z!@\PRXELIS@\PR>/X]M!ISPRD\^"LUT/LM_DA@NZ!@\PRX]L`HD abI@AF-IMc>9BEPR>9BELHdfegXE>9MH`HDJIFOLhDAMiT9L MHBEDA`H>/XEIK9DAL MH>;GHM!I-BRL@JI-V>IjPRGHXE><k^">9`HDlL BEB/d mWd n o >;GWPRDA@ADAK/K9DJIFOL-Z!@\PRXEDBEpq>/T9DJIS@JDAK9K/ISPRDp>/X?GHM!I-V>/ISPRGHXE>d?r[p!IXRIFO>QPRXEDBEL MHLhDBR>9s GH>9M"PRD pq>9X[PEGHP]PR>b@A>bBEDAF GH@JISK/DALM!Dut. •. >9FOpqLO`HDBEDAF GH@JIK9DAL MH>txwjy*zw w BE>9T v {. •. {. PR>9p(BRDAK9>t|w}dA~6BE>9T. •. ?‚ƒN‚*„. L@A^ >/XQtxLY`H>~hkuxGH@A>9X€o. [†E‡‰ˆfŠ]‹gŒ†*Žxf‘„. r7`!ISPEDXE>9@JISPRD\^}DlIS@A@JI BRDAF;GH@JIK9DAL MH>bBEL MHLODBE>9s GH>9MYPRDut ’. ##“S”$lW•–i$Y|“j–Y!—”l–}™˜š–YW•jl“–. • ’. C. t. P1 = [−100 − 40 700mm] t. ##“S”$lW•–i$Y7›Q•jUW•–i”l–}U˜–YH•l“j–. • ’. C. P1 st = [−2375 − 950 16625]mm Z!M!LCI(TžH>-@JI<V>/IjPRGHXE>-XRISsSy. #q$q•“#q7!|“j#œg#!•. (u1 , u2 ) = [40mm/s, 0r ad/s] sDAG!MHs> DA@ŸqL X]`!Lh`H>/@A@AL3BETžH>9XEFOL3> (u1 , u2 ) = [−40mm/s, 0r ad/s]. ZMHL3I@ y. @JI3pqL BEDAK9DAL MH> DAMHDJK9DJIS@J> `H>9@A@JIhV>/ISPRGHXE>¡lI@\PR>9XEM!ISPEDA^ISFO>/M"PR> Z!MHLCIS@A@JI3Z!MH> `H>9@A@

(16) I BEDAF GH@JIK9DALM!>d ¢. U#“j–i›/–›/l“j–. e>/X<L sMHD£T9LYL XE`HDAM!ISP€I¤`H>9@£pHGHM"PRL¥BRGH@A@u¦ DAFOF-IsDAMH>™BRD¨§. ISs s DAGHM"PRL GHM3XEGHFOL XE>fs IGHBRBEDJIMHL `HDqFO>9`HDJI;MYG!@A@JI6>?^IXEDJIMHK/I ¢. U#“j–i›/šª\#”#–"•/“S. «. 0.0001r ad. σ 2 = 1mm. p>/Xh@ALBRpqLBEPRIFO>/M"PRL@ADAMH>/IXE>i>. pq>9X[@AL-BEpqLBEP€ISlFO>/M"PRL-IMHsL @JIXE>. ±¥²}² ³W´%‹xŒµ†]Žgf†. •. d. ² ˆfŠ*Š]‹. Q = 10 ∗ ey e(3). >. R =. ² †]‡¶ˆfŠ]‹gŒ†*Žxf‘„. rš@µZ!@\PRXELO`HDlabIS@AF-IMC>9B]PR>9BRLOT9L M"^">9XEs >-k^">9`HDZ!sWd nHd¸· o ©. DA@µZ!@\PRXEL-I@\PR>9XEM!ISPEDA^ LOT/LMY^ >/XEs>bDAM(F-DAMHLX[PE>/FOpqLck^ >/`HDµZ!sHd nHd ¹. •. σa2 =. ©. H•/“S¬"7”7¬ #}­HH“S!$ U®g–Y“3x¯g

(17) •/“j#”—°(!uU!$. 10 ∗ ey e(2). σ 2 = 0.1pixel ©. >£Z!sHd nWd¸º o ©. ».

(18) ¼l½x¾µ¿jÀÁUÂÃlÄ}ÅÅÄiÆ ÇÇÈSÃÀÉlÂW¿ÄiÃlÄ}ÅÅÄcÊÄYÂW¿jËlÈjÄiÀÉ_¿/ÄYÈSÉlÂÌ9ÇqÅÀÃlÂ!ÅÄiÂ!Å|ÈjÇÍgÇ!¿. C 1. Error p1 [mm]. Æ ÇqÉÎÁUÄ"¿ÇÃlÇÂ!Å¿/ÄYÈSÉlÂW¿jÀ

(19) ÏqÇ. 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 50. 100. 150. 200 Tempo [sec]. 250. 300. 350. 400. C 1. Error p2 [mm]. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. 4. x 10. −0.5 −1. C. Error p1. 3 [mm]. 0. −1.5 −2 0. Ð%ÑAÒÓHÔRÕbÖH׸ØYÙ7Ú!ÛÜ Ý}ÞAß/à9ÛâáSãqä£å"æfäQçžçRáSçRä¨èۍéQêuÛÜOß?ë!äžç?ÞJäbìRááSçEèÛ

(20) ãqßêšä£è"äQÞÞAß7í9äRßêuÝ}çRäbì€ájã. C 1. Error p1 [mm]. ÛÞ îgÞ êuçRá3èSÛ%ï ßÞ¸Ü-ßãð. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 50. 100. 150. 200 Tempo [sec]. 250. 300. 350. 400. C 1. Error p2 [mm]. 1000 750 500 250 0 0. Error Cp1. 3 [mm]. 0 −5000 −10000 −15000 −20000 0. Ð%ÑAÒÓHÔRÕbÖH× ñ}Ù7Ú!ÛÜ Ý}ÞAß/à9ÛâáSãqä£å"æfäQçžçRáSçRä¨èۍéQêuÛÜOß?ë!äžç?ÞJäbìRááSçEèÛ

(21) ãqßêšä£è"äQÞÞAß7í9äRßêuÝ}çRäbì€ájã ÛÞ îgÞ êuçRá3ßSÞ ê*äžçžãqßêuÛòáð. óH¼.

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(23) ö÷øùúûü!ý"øþÿ%ø. Distanza − EKF. 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 50. 100. 150. 200 Tempo [sec]. 250. 300. 350. 40. Distanza − Alternativo. 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0. 

(24)  !#"%$'&)('*+,.-/+"0-21 043$ +-21 $5,.-2'+-/6$3$7+-21 $1 $ +8$ 9 $.1:*+;$=<>?-21@2A BDCFEGC2H. IKJ7LNMPORQTSUJWV:XPYZH. []\; _^7`7ab8 _^ dce _bb8 gf h5b8 +ijkaf7jkj'`f7aakl^ 2 m. n_oøÿlüpqiøÿøýYøüûø=n#qYü!ûøroeq}ûûütsuqYüpjúenq . þþ. m. •. P1 = [−100 − 40 700]mm. n_oøÿlüpqiøÿøýYøüûø]v.pjøùUüpq6oeq}ûûüws/qYüpúen#q . þþ. m. ‰. C. •. C. P1 st = [−2375 − 950 16625]mm. k;j{ }|@~ab8 0€Fa #^ 7a __‚ xpnþqûûø7ü!û=njþygþ;p (u1 , u2 ) = [40mm/s, 0rad/s] z +;k+ab„ƒxjR\;j

(25) \abbj f7|@~a7h'j a kj +b?‚ 0rad/s] z b8 †xjf7ijkagk8i8 _b8ag\abb8

(26) €Fa _^ 7a+(u‡e1 +,bd^ ua27)k;= _^7[−40mm/s, c+ _h'ak)^ a kj{ _bb8 kag\abbˆ z z f7hb8 +ij+k;a+. þqÿ. n#q6v/úûûqùøFv/úen#q‹Š a0j+k4|jlj7\k; _^Œ \ab4†k)^ jŽf bb2 h'h ++katf ‘ _k)^ j'k{7h'jRa) _;f7f78 +kj'\`h'a\8 gkbb8 ga4c+ +R8 +ki 2 σ = 1pixel ’ ‰ úùUþn#q6/v úûûu\“ þ`o þù”q)pSn øü 2 †a

(27) bj•f †xj+f7^ +h'ak)^ j•bka +7a6a 2 σa = †aKbj'f7†xjfR^Œ +h'σal kl= ^ j _1mm kjb8 +Ra 0.01rad ’ –— úùUþ.

(28) ˜e™:š%›#œFwž”Ÿe ¡F¡ 6¢£U£¤_Ÿ„œF¥ež› 6Ÿe ¡F¡F §¦/ lž›#¨e¤# 6œF¥©› l¤_¥ež”ª£x¡FœFŸež;¡ 6ž;¡=¤#£«T£;› ¢£x¥¬w )›£`Ÿe£”ž;¡› l¤_¥ež›#œˆ­x£ 12. 1. Error Cp1 [mm]. 3. x 10. 2 1 0 −1 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100 Tempo [sec]. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 1. Error Cp2 [mm]. 6000 4000 2000 0 0. 1. Error Cp3 [mm]. 0. 12. x 10. −2 −4 −6 0. ®¯°+±² ³´µ ¶·]¸;¹ºg»¼½¾¹!¿_ÀxÁPÂÃPÁ.Ä@Ä ¿_Ä Á‘Å+¹UÆ.Ç2¹º'½DÈ;Á@ÄD¼8ÁÉ ¿¿_Ä7Å+¹ˆÀx½+ÇuÁ4Å)Á.¼¼½]ÊÁ ½+Ç2»Ä ÁɌ¿#À ¹¼ËT¼?Ç2Ä ¿ Å_¹Ì½+¼º½+ÀÍ Î ž›¤_œF¢œrŸ„œ]¢£­ž¤_œž;¥eÏ)žwÐT l¤ œF¡:Ñ>¡ˆ›¤#£•Ÿ„œ]Ò{ž;¡Fwž¥ µ. Q = 10 ∗ eye(9). Ó. R =. 10 ∗ eye(6). ԎÕlÕÖU×ØÙ:Ú%ÛWÜ:ÝPÛgÕÞPßWßRÙàÕÛRáZÞPßWÙ:Ú%ÛRÜTÝPÖãâ •. •. . ²7èé¯eê³ ³+ì è

(29) é¯dî ²7° î é¯ °µ ´µ ¶ ð@µ ²R± è+² ¯ì ²7èléè èñ äWåU²7èæ;òådçòxè óFè+² µ5åëôPõõ¯8³ ӁíRç Óè0í ¯ì;è ² Ó î Ó ²7ï ¯ Ó ³ è0 æ ¯ì ¯ ± äuå ³_÷¯è+ë ì Ó ç ±ì;³ éç7ç ¯dù ç² ì ç ³gÓ é æ;ö ³îç ² õõ í ë èéå ¯ ³ èÓö@³ øÓ ¯ ±;³+÷¯èì Ó@ú ³ ë ²7¯ ¯ ådç Ó ìÓ èì{ Ó ç Ó4í öÓådç ÓååÓë ç ö Q Ó R Ó Óë æ;ö ç å í ç Ó+û ¯ ²7è0³ ²7ì;³ ¯dî)è èì ¯ì±;³ ³ èì)î ²7° ² è+ìüè ¯ ò² ³_÷¯è+ì¯ î é¯ åe°æ;µ ´ådç µ ý ådç7°Ó µ ´µþÿ ç ð ö ç ö Ó Ó Óö ç7ç ëÓ ÓíRç ï Ó æ Ó4æ. 

(30)      !" #$. %‘³ ¯ ± ³+÷¯èì¯ ¯ î¯ì è ³é;¯ ² ³+°°+¯è'ò²Rèòxè èg¯ì!&l± è ³ ò¯ è ååÓ4è(' í ë î¯ ±å òò;³ è4í ³_é Ó è öò Ó4öŒ²ø¯ Ó4òå ²7èí7õ ö@øÓë ³Pé æ;³ ådç ¯ ³Pé èè+íRç ²7é¯ì³ ¯Óì íRç ²7ö ì;³ ú çè ¯é;å ³ í '„ñ'å ò¯*)w²7ç èõ± ø è ö òÓ ¯*) å ¯ ì åÓë é Óåå ²7íRè{ ç ë é¯:ê³ ӁååÓ]³_ö ì è{ç Ó ³+òò ç ¯ Ó ³ è í³ å é åÓ ¯ è ò²7è+õ íRç ³µ-Ó , Ó+²7è ö Ó ç Óò¯²7¯ Óå>è

(31) æòådç²7è+òxè è ¯eåë ò ²7éèÓìíRç è.Ó' í ± ³îå ¯8³(ö ' ç åÓ ¯ìåeóFë' è² Ó ³+Ó÷í ¯ëèì¯ ³ ¯ åӁ¯ë ³+Ó² åe³ æ;ådç ²R¯ Ó¯ ë é ö ²7è'éíR¯eç ê4³ í ³+Ó ì èç µ çRç ë íRç ç íRç öŒø;Ó4ö çRç Ó íRç öŒø;Ó ÓåUæ;ådç åë Óí7ç Óí /0/.

(32) 123154$687:9 ;=<>@?BA.C@;D687:;9 E:FHGFJIK?B6ALFJIK>@?B7:A(IK;DM06 3000 1. Error Cp1. 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100 Tempo. 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 2. Error Cp1. 1000 750 500 250 0 0. 1. Error Cp3. 0 −5000 −10000 −15000 −20000 0. [sec]. NPO*QSR.TVU"W.X Y(Z\[0]J^`_ba*cKde]gfihkjmlbnojqpqpVfipVj"ri]tsug]D^vcxwLjpxayjz{f fip|r}]Dh0c}uj"r@jqaDa*c~jVc}ug_(pVj"z{fih ]Da€au‚pVfƒc}aujpqh0c}ug]D„}fS 2000 1800 1600. C. C. Distanza | p1st− p1|. 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100 120 Tempo [sec]. 140. 160. 180. 200. PN O*QSR.TVUW.X*† ‡(Z[0]D^_ba*cKde]‚fBhkjlbnor}]ysqucihbdKcvugp|cva*cm~ejVciu‚_bpVjosug]D^ˆc}u‰cja*cm~ejVc}ug_bpVjpVjVc}ayj wLjp]Ja€augpVfƒc}aujpqh8ciu‚]D„ifS Š8‹.

(33) ŒHŽkB=‘“’”•b–=–D•˜—S™t™0ši”:=›’(K•˜”•b–=–=•œ‰•@’(BžšB•˜=›Ÿ •@ši›’ e™8–==”’L–D•˜’L–\šB™0¡™L —S™8›¢‘“•€K™ ”™’L–D •@ši›’(BJ£8™ ¤ ¥¦L¥*§|¨|©“ª.¨|©Sª8©}«|§V©“¬e©}­@§V®*­@¯L°“°²±=¯.­.³e®*©S­L°}¨|´}µ¶¬e©S·ˆ´!¸ ¹ °i¥3§V¨|©S­.¸.´°}­.¬qº.´!¥g¹ »\¼"½¶µ «|´ƒ«|®y°®*¥H¨¾¯L·ˆ©}¨|´v©b¸.©S·ˆ´§V¨|®*¬e©¬{º.´v¿b¯.´e¥*¥*©«|¯.¥*¥*´ƒ·ˆ®*«|¯.¨|´v«V©}­.©À€°i¯.«V«|®y°}­.®\°·ˆ´e¸.®y° ­@¯.¥*¥J°bÁ» ¹€«|§{°B§V©€´e¨|®3¦L¬ °i§V©®*­v«V®*·$¯L¥y°i³e®y©}­.´x¬qº.´Sµ€«V´xÀS¥*®L´e¨|¨|©S¨¾®0©@¸.©S·ˆ´§V¨|®*¬e®L­.©S­v«|©S­.© °`·ˆ´e¸.®y°`­b¯.¥*¥y°bµ.¥J°«|§V®*·v°`¸.´e¥*¥*´"¬ ©@©S¨|¸.®*­L°B§V´¸.´e¥*¥*´"±D´K°B§V¯.¨|´"«V®t«¾§{°}Ã.®*¥*®*³e³K°®*­@§V©}¨|­.©v°}¸ ¯.­ÄÂ}°i¥*©S¨|´o¸.®3€´e¨|«|©¸0°$¿@¯.´ ¥*¥*©¨|´ °}¥*´}Á\Ŷ®*Ƹ.®*ª8´ ­.¸.´o¸L°i¥8±g°B§|§V©¬qº.´}µ(­.´ ¥*¥y°$­.©S«¾§V¨V°$®*·Ç ª8©}«|§{°i³ ®*©}­.´È¸.´e¥ ª.¨|©SÃ.¥*´e·v°ˆ¸.´e¥*¥y°ˆ¨¾®*¬ ©}«|§V¨¾¯L³e®*©S­.´¸.´e¥*¥y°ˆ«|¬e´ ­L°(µL¥g¹ ©@¸.©S·ˆ´§V¨|®y°±=©S¨|­.®*«|¬ ´ ¥g¹ ®*­(±=©S¨¾·ƒ°i³ ®*©}­.´x¸.®Lª.¨|©}±D©S­.¸.®3§{ɬ{º.´x®*­@§|´ À}¨V°¥*´x®*­(±D©S¨|·v°}³e®*©S­.®Lª.¨|©KÂS´ ­.®*´e­€§V®L¸L°}¥.ª.®y°}­.© ®*·ˆ·v°}ÀS®*­.´}ÁÊo¯.´e«¾§{°-®*­(±=©S¨|·v°}³e®*©S­.´¶¸.´eÂS´´e«V«|´e¨|´´e«{°B§|§{°-®*­`·ˆ´e¸.®y°(µ€°}¥3§|¨|®*·ˆ´ ­€§V®b®b¦L¥3§V¨|® ®*­€§V´ ¨¾ª.¨|´e§V°}­.©ˆ®*­·v°}­.®*´e¨V°`­.©S­!¬ ©}¨|¨|´§|§{°`¥*´®*­(±=©}¨|·v°}³e®*©S­.®tÂb®*«|®3€´}Á. Ë0Ì.

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