This article reviews the applications of CT in the evalua- tion of common chest problems in children, in particular mediastinal masses and congenital lung anomalies.
Normal anatomy and anatomic variants and CT tech- niques are also discussed.
Two basic protocols suffice for most pediatric CT ex- aminations. For metastases, a focal lung or mediasti- nal mass, or trauma, CT with thicker slice collimation (>1 mm) and higher pitch (>1.5) is used. If vascular or airway disorders are suspected, thinner collimation (<1.0 mm) and a smaller pitch (=1) are used. Tube cur- rent and voltage are adapted to the patient’s dimen- sions [1, 2].
Intravenous contrast agent is given via a power injec- tor when a 22-gauge or larger cannula can be placed in an antecubital vein. Flow rates are 1.5-2.0 ml/s for a 22- gauge catheter and 2.0-3.0 ml/s for a 20-gauge catheter.
Manual injection is used when intravenous access is through a peripheral access line in the dorsum of the hand or foot. For conventional CT examinations, the scan de- lay time is 30 s after the onset of contrast administration.
CT angiography is done with a bolus-tracking method. A default time of 12-15 s is used if the automated trigger- ing fails.
CT examinations are carried out with breath-holding at suspended inspiration in cooperative patients, usually children over 5-6 years of age. Scans are obtained during quiet respiration in sedated children and in those who are unable to cooperate with breath-holding instructions.
In patients <5 years of age, the thymus usually has a quadrilateral shape with convex or straight lateral mar- gins (Fig. 1). Later in the first decade, the thymus is tri- angular or arrowhead-shaped with straight or concave
margins; by 15 years of age, it is triangular in nearly all individuals (Fig. 2). In prepubertal children, the thymus is homogeneous, with an attenuation equal to that of the chest-wall musculature. In adolescents, the thymus may be heterogeneous, containing areas of fat deposi- tion. Occasionally, the thymus extends either cranially above the brachiocephalic vessels or into the posterior thorax [3,4].
Mediastinal lymph nodes generally are not seen on CT prior to puberty. In adolescents, small normal nodes (not exceeding 1 cm in their widest dimension) occasionally can be identified.
The contour of the azygoesophageal recess is convex laterally in children <6 years of age, straight in children between 5 and 12 years of age, and concave in adoles- cents or young adults . Recognition of the normal dex- troconvex appearance of this recess in young children is important so that it is not mistaken for lymphadenopathy.
CT Evaluation of the Pediatric Chest in Routine Practice
Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO, USA
Fig. 1. Normal CT appearance of the thymus in a 6-month-old boy.
The thymus (T) is quadrilateral in shape with slightly convex lat- eral borders and a wide retrosternal component. The attenuation of the thymus is equal to that of the chest-wall musculature
Mediastinal Masses Anterior Mediastinal MassesSoft-Tissue Attenuation
Lymphoma is the most common cause of an anterior me- diastinal mass of soft-tissue attenuation in children, with Hodgkin’s disease occurring three to four times more frequently than non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [1-3, 6-8].
Lymphoma may manifest as nodal or thymic enlarge- ment. Thymic lymphoma appears as an enlarged quadri- lateral-shaped gland with convex, lobular lateral borders (Fig. 3). Nodal disease ranges from mildly enlarged
nodes in a single area to large conglomerate masses in multiple regions. Both forms of involvement show soft- tissue attenuation and little if any enhancement after in- travenous administration of contrast medium.
Rebound thymic hyperplasia is defined as a >50%
increase in the size of the thymus compared to baseline and is most often associated with chemotherapy, par- ticularly therapy with corticosteroids. The overgrowth is usually seen several months after the start of chemotherapy and between courses of chemotherapy.
Rare causes of hyperplasia include myasthenia gravis, red cell aplasia, and hyperthyroidism. CT features are a diffusely enlarged thymus, which usually maintains a triangular shape (Fig. 4) [1-3, 6, 7]. The attenuation is similar to that of the normal organ and also of tumor.
The absence of other active disease and a gradual de- crease in the size of the thymus on serial CT scans sup- ports the diagnosis of rebound hyperplasia as the cause of thymic enlargement.
Thymoma and thyroid abnormalities are rare causes of anterior mediastinal masses in children.
Germ-cell tumors are the second most common cause of an anterior mediastinal mass in children and the most common cause of a fat-containing lesion.
Approximately 90% are benign. On CT, benign ter- atoma is a well-defined, thick-walled cystic mass con- taining a variable admixture of water, calcium, fat, and soft tissue (Fig. 5) [1-3, 6, 7, 9, 10]. Low-attenuation fluid components predominate. By comparison, malig- nant germ-cell tumors contain a predominance of soft- tissue attenuation components (Fig. 6). Central areas of necrosis or cyst formation are common, especially inFig. 2.Normal CT appearance of the thymus in a 17-year-old girl. The
thymus (T) has assumed a triangular shape but still abuts the sternum.
The heterogeneity corresponds to the presence of fatty infiltration
Fig. 3. Thymic Hodgkin’s disease with thymic infiltration in an 11- year-old girl. A large mass (M) with biconvex borders fills the an- terior mediastinum, compressing the superior vena cava (black ar- row). Note the pretracheal adenopathy (white arrow)
Fig. 4. Rebound thymic hyperplasia in a 4-year-old boy receiving chemotherapy for Wilms’ tumor. The CT scan was obtained 3 months after the start of chemotherapy. The thymus (T) is diffuse- ly enlarged but maintains a triangular configuration
nonteratomatous malignant tumors. Local infiltration with encasement or invasion of mediastinal vessels or airways also is frequent.
Thymolipoma is an infrequent cause of an in- trathymic tumor. At CT, it appears as a heterogeneous mass containing fat and some soft-tissue elements.
Thymolipoma does not compress or invade adjacent structures .
Lymphangiomas are developmental tumors of the lym- phatic system and are almost always inferior extensions of cervical lymphangiomas [1-3]. At CT, they appear as non-enhancing, thin-walled, multiloculated masses with near-water attenuation (Fig. 7). Hemorrhage can cause a
sudden increase in tumor size and can increase CT at- tenuation.
Thymic cysts usually are congenital lesions resulting from persistence of the thymopharyngeal duct, but they can occur after thoracotomy. Typically, these cysts are thin-walled, homogeneous masses of near-water attenua- tion on CT (Fig. 8).
Middle Mediastinal Masses
Frequent causes of middle mediastinal masses are lymph-node enlargement and congenital foregut cysts [1-3, 6, 7]. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy is usually the result of lymphoma or granulomatous disease. On CT, adenopathy can appear as discrete, round, soft tissue masses, or as a single soft-tissue mass with poorly de-Fig. 5.Benign teratoma in an 18-year-old girl. A large, well-circum-
scribed, heterogeneous mass containing a predominance of low-at- tenuation fluid with scattered areas of calcifications and fat occupies the right lobe of the thymus. The arrow indicates the left thymic lobe
Fig.6.Teratocarcinoma. A large, anterior mediastinal, soft-tissue mass containing calcifications and some low-density areas, representing necrosis, displaces the mediastinal vascular structures to the right
Fig. 7. Cystic hygroma in a 6-month-old girl. A septated low-atten- uation mass infiltrates the superior mediastinum and right axilla
Fig. 8. Thymic cyst. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrates replace- ment of the thymus by a homogeneous, water-attenuation mass (M)
fined margins (Fig. 9). Calcification within lymph nodes suggests old granulomatous disease, such as histoplasmosis or tuberculosis. Areas of low attenuation suggest tuberculosis.
Foregut cysts include bronchogenic and enteric cysts . Bronchogenic cysts are lined by respiratory epithe- lium and most are located in the subcarinal or right para- tracheal area. Enteric cysts are lined by gastrointestinal mucosa and are located in a paraspinal position in the middle to posterior mediastinum. CT findings are those of a well defined, round, non-enhancing mass of near-wa- ter attenuation, which reflects the serous contents of the cyst (Fig. 10).
Posterior Mediastinal Masses
Posterior mediastinal masses are of neural origin in ap- proximately 95% of patients and may arise from sympa- thetic ganglion cells (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblas- toma, or ganglioneuroma) or from nerve sheaths (neu- rofibroma or schwannoma). Rarer causes of posterior mediastinal masses in children include paraspinal ab- scess, lymphoma, neurenteric cyst, lateral meningocele, and extramedullary hematopoiesis [1-3].
On CT, ganglion-cell tumors appear as fusiform, paraspinal masses extending over the length of several vertebral bodies and with soft-tissue attenuation.
Calcifications are seen in up to 50% of these tumors (Fig. 11). Nerve-root tumors tend to be smaller, spheri- cal, and occur near the junction of a vertebral body with an adjacent rib. Both types of tumors may invade the spinal canal.
Fig. 9. Middle mediastinal adenopathy in a 15-year-old boy with histoplasmosis. Axial CT shows a bulky mass (M) of coalesced lymph nodes in the subcarinal area. Adenopathy is also present in the left hilum
Fig. 10.Duplication cyst in a 15-year-old girl. Contrast-enhanced CT shows a homogeneous, cyst (C) of near-water-density in the right paratracheal area (middle mediastinum)
Fig. 11a, b. Neuroblastoma in a 2-year-old girl. a Axial CT shows a large, right, paraspinal soft-tissue mass (M). b Sagittal multiplanar reformatted image shows the tumor extending over the length of several vertebral bodies. The craniocaudal extent of the mass is better defined on the reformatted image
Congenital Pulmonary Lesions
Congenital lung anomalies include a variety of conditions involving the pulmonary parenchyma, the pulmonary vasculature, or a combination of both.
Anomalies with Normal Vasculature
Congenital lobar emphysema, cystic adenomatoid mal- formation, and bronchial atresia are anomalies resulting from abnormal bronchial development. Chest radiogra- phy often suffices for diagnosis. CT is used to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the extent of disease in pa- tients in whom surgery is contemplated.
Congenital lobar emphysema is characterized by hyper- inflation of a lobe [13, 14]. It is believed to be due to bronchial obstruction. CT shows a hyperinflated lobe with attenuated vascularity, compression of ipsilateral adjacent lobes, and a mediastinal shift to the opposite side (Fig. 12).
The left upper lobe is involved in about 45% of patients, the right middle lobe in 30%, the right upper lobe in 20%, and two lobes in 5% .
Cystic adenomatoid malformation is characterized by an overgrowth of distal bronchial tissue resulting in the formation of a cystic mass. Type I (50% of patients) is de- fined as a single cyst or multiple large cysts (>2 cm in di- ameter), type II (41%) as multiple small cysts (1-10 mm in diameter). Type III (9%) appears on visual inspection to be a solid lesion but contains microscopic cysts [15, 16]. In neonates, the anomaly appears as a multiloculat- ed, thin-walled mass containing air-filled cysts surround- ed by septations (Fig. 13). In older children, the cysts may have thicker walls and contain fluid or air; air-fluid levels may be seen [1-3].
Bronchial atresia results from abnormal develop- ment of a segmental or subsegmental bronchus. It rarely causes symptoms and is usually discovered on chest radiographs obtained for other indications. CT features include overaerated lung distal to the atresia
and a round, ovoid, or branching density near the hilum, representing mucoid impaction just beyond the atretic bronchus (Fig. 14) .
Fig. 12. Congenital lobar emphysema in a 6-month-old boy. CT through the upper thorax shows a hyperinflated left upper lobe with attenuated vascularity
Fig. 13a, b. Cystic adenomatoid malformation. a Type I lesion in a neonate; a multilocular mass in the right upper lobe contains a dom- inant large cyst. b Type II malformation in a neonate; CT shows a complex mass in the left lower lobe containing multiple small cysts a
Fig. 14. Bronchial atresia in a 15-year-old girl. CT shows an ovoid soft-tissue nodule (arrow) in the left lower lobe. The nodule is sur- rounded by overaerated lung, due to collateral air drift
Anomalies with Abnormal Vasculature
Sequestration, hypogenetic lung syndrome, and arteri- ovenous malformation (AVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by abnormal vasculature. When the se- questered lung is confined within the normal visceral pleura and has venous drainage to the pulmonary veins, it is termed ‘intralobar’ or ‘congenital’. The sequestered lung is termed ‘extralobar’ or ‘acquired’ when it has its own pleura and venous drainage to systemic veins [18, 19]. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrates opacifica- tion of the anomalous vessel immediately following en- hancement of the descending thoracic aorta (Figs. 15, 16) [20-22]. The CT appearance of the pulmonary parenchy- ma depends on whether or not the sequestered lung is aer- ated. When the sequestration communicates with the re- mainder of the lung, usually after being infected, it ap-
pears cystic; a sequestration that does not communicate appears as a homogeneous density, usually in the posteri- or portion of the lower lobe.
Hypogenetic lung syndrome, also referred to as scimitar syndrome, is characterized by a small right lung, ipsilateral mediastinal displacement, a corre- sponding small pulmonary artery, and partial anom- alous pulmonary venous return from the right lung to the inferior vena cava (Fig. 17) . Other associatedFig. 15.Intralobar sequestration in a 10-year-old girl with recurrent left
lower lobe pneumonia. CT demonstrates the anomalous arterial sup- ply (arrow) to the sequestered lung (S) arising from the thoracic aorta
Fig. 16. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-week-old girl with a left paraspinal mass seen on chest radiographs. Coronal CT shows the anomalous arterial vessel (arrow) arising from the distal aortal and supplying the sequestered left lower lobe (S)
Fig. 17. Scimitar syndrome with partial anomalous venous return.
Coronal CT scan shows the anomalous vein (arrow) entering the intrahepatic inferior vena cava. Note that the right hemithorax is smaller than the left and that there is a mediastinal shift to the right. (Case courtesy of Dr Edward Lee, Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA)
Fig. 18. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Coronal maximum-intensity projection CT at soft-tissue windows shows multiple nodular AVM (arrows) with its feeding arteries and drain- ing veins. AVMs can be reliably diagnosed on CT based on their morphology
anomalies include systemic arterial supply to the hypo- genetic lung, accessory diaphragm, and horseshoe lung.
Horseshoe lung is a rare anomaly in which the poster- obasal segments of both lungs are fused behind the pericardial sac.
Pulmonary AVM is a direct communication between a pulmonary artery and vein without an intervening capil- lary bed [1-3]. AVMs appear as rounded or lobular mass- es with rapid enhancement and washout after intravenous administration of contrast medium. Maximal-intensity projections or 3D volume-rendered reconstructions are particularly useful to show the feeding and draining ves- sels (Fig. 18) .
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