## ON THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM FOR TEMPERED HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

### ANDREA D’AGNOLO

### Abstract. In order to discuss the Fourier-Sato transform of not necessarily conic sheaves, we compensate the lack of homogeneity by adding an extra variable. We can then obtain Paley-Wiener type results, using a theorem by Kashiwara and Schapira on the Laplace transform for tempered holomorphic functions. As a key tool in our approach, we introduce the subanalytic sheaf of holomorphic func- tions with exponential growth, which should be of independent in- terest.

## Contents

## 1. Introduction 2

## 2. Kernel calculus 5

## 3. Conic sheaves 6

## 4. Conified sheaves 9

## 5. Fourier-Sato transform 11

## 6. Conified Fourier-Sato transform 13

## 7. Exponential growth: real case 17

## 8. Exponential growth: complex case 22

## 9. Laplace transform 23

## 10. Conified Laplace transform 24

## 11. Paley-Wiener type theorems 25

## Appendix A. Link with Tamarkin’s Fourier transform 28

## References 30

### 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 32C38, 44A10, 14F10.

### Key words and phrases. Fourier-Sato transform, Laplace transform, tempered holo- morphic functions, Paley-Wiener theorem.

### The author wishes to thank R.I.M.S. of Kyoto University for kind hospitality during the preparation of this paper and acknowledges partial support from the Fondazione Cariparo through the project “Differential methods in Arithmetic, Geometry and Algebra”.

### 1

## 1. Introduction

## Let V and V ^{∗} be dual n-dimensional complex vector spaces. Kashiwara- Schapira [11] proved that the Laplace transform

## ϕ(x) 7→

## Z

## e ^{−hx,yi} ϕ(x)dx induces an isomorphism

## (1.1) RHom (F, O _{V|P(V)} ^{t} ) ' RHom (F ^{∧} [n], O _{V} ^{t}

∗### |P(V

^{∗}

### ) ).

## Here, F is a conic R-constructible complex of sheaves on V, F ^{∧} its Fourier-Sato transform, and O ^{t}

### V|P(V) is the subanalytic sheaf of holomor- phic functions tempered up to the projective compactification P(V) of V. Let us recall a couple of statements deduced from (1.1) for particular choices of F .

## (i) Assume that V and V ^{∗} are complexifications of the real vector spaces V and V ^{∗} . For F = k _{V} the constant sheaf on V, one recovers the classical isomorphism

## Γ (V; Db ^{t} _{V|P(V)} ) ' Γ (V ^{∗} ; Db ^{t} _{V}

∗### |P(V

^{∗}

### ) ) between the spaces of tempered distributions.

## (ii) Let (x ^{0} , x ^{00} ) be the coordinates on V = C ^{p} × C ^{q} and (y ^{0} , y ^{00} ) the dual coordinates on V ^{∗} . Let A = {(Rex ^{0} ) ^{2} − (Rex ^{00} ) ^{2} ≤ 0} be a quadratic cone in V. For F = k _{A} , one recovers a result of Faraut-Gindikin:

## Γ _{A} (V; Db ^{t} _{V|P(V)} ) ' H ^{q} RΓ {(Rey

^{0}

### )

^{2}

### −(Rey

^{00}

### )

^{2}

### ≥0} (V ^{∗} , O ^{t} _{V}

∗### |P(V

^{∗}

### ) ).

## Our aim in this paper is to extend the isomorphism (1.1) in order to treat the case where F is not necessarily conic. This will allow us to obtain Paley-Wiener type results like the following:

## (iii) Let A ⊂ V be a closed, convex, subanalytic, bounded subset. Denote by h _{A} its support function. For F = k _{A} we will recover the classical Paley-Wiener theorem of [7, Theorem 7.3.1]:

## Γ _{A} (V; Db _{V} ) − → {ψ ∈ Γ (V ^{∼} ^{∗} ; O _{V}

^{∗}

## ) :

## ∃c, ∃m, ∀y, |ψ(y)| ≤ c(1 + |y|) ^{m} e ^{h}

^{A}

^{(−Re y)} }.

## We will also discuss the case where A is not necessarily bounded nor included in the real part V of V.

## (iv) Generalizing (ii) above, for c ≥ 0 let A = {(Rex ^{0} ) ^{2} − (Rex ^{00} ) ^{2} ≤ c ^{2} } be a quadric in V. For F = k _{A} we will get a description of the Laplace transform of the space Γ _{A} (V; Db ^{t} _{V|P(V)} ).

## In order to state our result, let us start by describing the functional spaces that will appear in the statement.

## Let j : X − → X ^{0} be an open subanalytic embedding of real analytic

## manifolds. A j-R-constructible sheaf on X is a sheaf (or more precisely,

## an object of the derived category of sheaves) whose proper direct image by j is R-constructible in X ^{0} . Such sheaves are naturally identified with sheaves on the site X _{j-sa} , whose objects are open subsets of X which are subanalytic in X ^{0} and whose coverings are locally finite in X ^{0} .

## For f : X − → R a continuous subanalytic function, consider the sheaf C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0 ## on X _{j-sa} whose sections on U ⊂ X are f -tempered functions. These are smooth functions ϕ which, together with all of their derivatives, lo- cally satisfy on X ^{0} an estimate of the type

## |ϕ(x)| ≤ c

## 1 + 1

## dist(X ^{0} \ U, x) + |f (x)|

## m

## e ^{f (x)} .

## The subanalytic sheaf of tempered functions considered in [12] is recov- ered as C _{X} ^{∞,t} = C _{X|X} ^{∞,[0]} . The sheaf C _{X|X} ^{∞,t}

0 ## = C _{X|X} ^{∞,[0]}

0 ## takes also into account growth conditions at infinity. We show that ϕ is f -tempered on U if and only if ϕ(x)e ^{s} is tempered on {(x, s) : x ∈ U, s < −f (x)}.

## Let now j : X − → X ^{0} be an open subanalytic embedding of complex analytic manifolds. We denote by O _{X|X} ^{[f ]}

0 ## the Dolbeault complex with coefficients in C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0## . These sheaves should be of independent interest in dealing with holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular.

## The functional spaces we will be dealing with are those of the form RHom (F, O _{X|X} ^{[f ]}

0## ),

## for F a j-R-constructible sheaf. For example, the subanalytic sheaf of holomorphic functions tempered up to infinity appearing in (1.1) is re- covered as O ^{t} _{X|X}

0 ## = O ^{[0]} _{X|X}

0## .

## We can now state our result on the Laplace transform. Recall that V and V ^{∗} are dual complex vector spaces of dimension n. In order to treat the case of not necessarily conic sheaves, we compensate the lack of homogeneity by adding an extra variable. Consider the embedding

## i : V − → V × C, x 7→ (x, −1).

## Let F be a j-R-constructible sheaf on V, where j : V − → P(V) is the complex projective compactification. Note that if F is conic, then

## (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} ' (F ^{∧} k C ) ⊗ k {Ret≥0} ,

## with t ∈ C the dual of the extra variable. For F not necessarily conic, assume that

## (Ri ! F ) ^{∧} ' (G k C ) ⊗ k {Ret≥−g(y)} ,

## for G a conic sheaf on V ^{∗} and g : V ^{∗} − → R a continuous subanalytic function which is positive homogeneous of degree one. (We claim in Conjecture A.4 that this assumption is not very strong.) Then we have an isomorphism

## RHom (F, O ^{t} _{V|P(V)} ) ' RHom (G[n], O ^{[g]}

### V

^{∗}

### |P(V

^{∗}

### ) ).

## In order to get this result we will start by discussing some generalities on conic sheaves. For example, we explicitly describe the left and right adjoint to the embedding of conic sheaves into sheaves. We also prove that the functor (Ri _{!} (·)) ^{∧} is fully faithful and that its essential image consists of the conic sheaves H on V ^{∗} × C such that

## H ∗ k {Ret≥0,y=0}

## − → H. ∼

## This is the kind of condition considered by Tamarkin [17]. We will see how the Fourier transform considered in [17] is related to the functor F 7→ (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} .

## The plan of the paper is as follows.

## Section 2 recalls the formalism of kernel calculus for sheaves, which will be useful on several occasions in the rest of the paper.

## On a space X endowed with an R ^{+} -action, Section 3 gives an elemen- tary construction of the left and right adjoint to the embedding of conic sheaves into sheaves. These are called conification functors.

## Let i : Y − → X be the embedding of a locally closed subset satisfying a suitable assumption with respect to the R ^{+} -action. Section 4 charac- terizes the image of the fully faithful functor sending a not necessarily conic sheaf on Y to the conification of its direct image by i.

## Section 5 recalls some properties of the Fourier-Sato transform between conic sheaves on dual real vector spaces V and V ^{∗} .

## Section 6 characterizes the image of the fully faithful functor from V to V ^{∗} × R sending a not necessarily conic sheaf on V to the Fourier- Sato transform of its direct image by the embedding i : V − → V × R, x 7→ (x, −1).

## Let j : X − → X ^{0} be an open subanalytic embedding of real analytic manifolds. The j-subanalytic site on X is the one induced by the sub- analytic site on X ^{0} . In Section 7 we introduce the j-subanalytic sheaf of smooth functions with exponential growth. We also relate this sheaf to the sheaf of tempered smooth functions with an extra variable.

## If X is a complex analytic manifold, we discuss in Section 8 the j-subanalytic sheaf of holomorphic functions with exponential growth.

## This is the Dolbeault complex of the previous sheaf.

## In Section 9 we recall a theorem by Kashiwara and Schapira on the Fourier-Laplace transform between tempered holomorphic functions as- sociated with conic sheaves on dual complex vector spaces V and V ^{∗} .

## We then extend it in Section 10 to sheaves which are not necessarily conic by considering as above the embedding i : V − → V×C, x 7→ (x, −1).

## As an application of the above results, we get in Section 11 some Paley-Wiener type theorems.

## In Appendix A we show how the functor F 7→ (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} is expressed in

## terms of the Fourier transform considered by Tamarkin in [17].

## Acknowledgments. The author is grateful to Pierre Schapira for bring- ing to his attention the problem of extending the results of [11] to the not necessarily conic case. He also acknowledges very useful discussions with St´ ephane Guillermou, Luca Prelli, Pierre Schapira, and especially with Masaki Kashiwara.

## 2. Kernel calculus

## We recall here the definition and basic properties of kernel calculus for sheaves. This formalism will be useful in the first part of the paper.

## Let X be a locally compact topological space and k a field. For A ⊂ X a locally closed subset, we denote by k _{A} the constant sheaf on A with stalk k, extended by zero to X. Denote by D ^{b} (k _{X} ) the bounded derived category of sheaves of k-vector spaces on X and by ⊗, RHom , f ^{−1} , Rf _{∗} , Rf _{!} , f ^{!} the usual operations (here f : X − → Y is a continuous map of locally compact spaces). More generally, in this paper we will follow the notations of [9].

## Let X _{i} (i ∈ N) be locally compact topological spaces. Consider the projections q _{ij} : X _{1} × X _{2} × X _{3} − → X _{i} × X _{j} . For K _{ij} ∈ D ^{b} (k _{X}

_{i}

### ×X

_{j}

## ), set

## K _{12} ◦

### X

2## K _{23} = Rq _{13!} (q _{12} ^{−1} K _{12} ⊗ q _{23} ^{−1} K _{23} ), (2.1)

## [K _{12} , K _{23} ]

### X

2## = Rq _{13∗} RHom (q _{12} ^{−1} K _{12} , q _{23} ^{!} K _{23} ).

## (2.2)

## By adjunction and projection formula, one gets (2.3) [K _{12} ◦

### X

2## K _{23} , K _{34} ]

### X

3## ' [K _{12} , [K _{23} , K _{34} ]

### X

3## ]

### X

2## .

## The operations (2.1) and (2.2) are called compositions of kernels. This is because, for K ∈ D ^{b} (k _{X×Y} ), the functors

## D ^{b} (k X ) − → D ^{b} (k Y ), F 7→ F ◦

### X K, (2.4)

## D ^{b} (k _{Y} ) − → D ^{b} (k _{X} ), G 7→ [K, G]

### Y , (2.5)

## can be considered as sheaf theoretical analogues of an integral transform with kernel K. Note that (2.3) implies that (2.4) and (2.5) are adjoint functors.

## Denote by Γ _{f} ⊂ X × Y the graph of f : X − → Y and by the exterior tensor product. One has

## F G ' F ◦

### {pt} G, Rf _{!} F ' F ◦

### X k _{Γ}

_{f}

## , f ^{−1} G ' k _{Γ}

_{f}

## ◦

### Y , G.

## Similar relations hold for the adjoint operations.

## Denote by ∆ X

i## the diagonal of X i × X i and set K _{ij} ^{r} = Rr ! K ij , for r(x _{i} , x _{j} ) = (x _{j} , x _{i} ). One has

## k _{∆}

_{X1}

## ◦

### X

1## K _{12} ' K _{12} ' [k _{∆}

_{X1}

## , K _{12} ]

### X

1## , (2.6)

## (K _{12} ◦

### X

2## K _{23} ) ◦

### X

3## K _{34} ' K _{12} ◦

### X

2## (K _{23} ◦

### X

3## K _{34} ), (2.7)

## (K _{12} ◦

### X

2## K _{23} ) ^{r} ' K _{23} ^{r} ◦

### X

2## K _{12} ^{r} . (2.8)

## Consider the projections q _{ij} : X _{1} × · · · × X _{m+1} − → X _{i} × X _{j} . One has (2.9) K _{12} ◦

### X

2## · · · ◦

### X

m## K _{mm+1} ' Rq _{1m+1!} (q _{12} ^{−1} K _{12} ⊗ · · · ⊗ q _{mm+1} ^{−1} K _{mm+1} ).

## 3. Conic sheaves

## Let X be a locally compact space endowed with an action of the mul- tiplicative group R ^{+} of positive real numbers and consider the maps

## R ^{+} × X ^{p} ^{//}

### µ // X,

## where p is the projection and µ is the action. We will write for short µ(t, x) = tx. Recall (see [9, §3.7]) that a sheaf F on X is called R ^{+} -conic if it satisfies

## µ ^{−1} F ' p ^{−1} F.

## Note that p ^{!} ' p ^{−1} [1] and µ ^{!} ' µ ^{−1} [1]. Denote by D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) the full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{X} ) whose objects are R ^{+} -conic.

## Definition 3.1. The left and right conification functors are the pair of adjoint functors

## (·) ^{c} : D ^{b} (k _{X} ) − → D ^{b} (k _{X} ), F ^{c} = Rµ _{!} p ^{−1} F [1] ' Rµ _{!} p ^{!} F,

### c (·) : D ^{b} (k _{X} ) − → D ^{b} (k _{X} ), ^{c} F = Rp _{∗} µ ^{!} F [−1] ' Rp _{∗} µ ^{−1} F.

## Note that µ and p can be interchanged in the above definition. In fact, one has for example Rµ _{!} p ^{−1} ' Rµ _{!} Re _{!} e ^{−1} p ^{−1} ' Rp _{!} µ ^{−1} , where e(t, x) = (t ^{−1} , tx).

## In this section we will show that the left and right conification functors are respectively the left and right adjoint to the embedding D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) − → D ^{b} (k X ).

## Remark 3.2. Let j : X − → R ^{+} ×X be the embedding x 7→ (1, x). Assume that there is an isomorphism µ ^{−1} F ' p ^{−1} F . Since p ^{−1} is fully faithful, one checks that there is a unique isomorphism β : µ ^{−1} F − → p ^{∼} ^{−1} F such that j ^{−1} β = id F . Thus, the category D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k X ) is equivalent to the equi-

## variant derived category in the sense of [2]. There, for groups G more gen-

## eral than R ^{+} , it is shown that the forgetful functor D ^{b} _{G} (k _{X} ) − → D ^{b} (k _{X} )

## has a left and a right adjoint. Here, for G = R ^{+} , we describe these

## adjoints without the machinery of equivariant derived categories.

## Consider the projection q 23 : R ^{+} × X × X − → X × X. Denoting by (t, x, x ^{0} ) a point in R ^{+} × X × X, we will sometimes write {x ^{0} = tx}

## instead of Γ _{µ} .

## Definition 3.3. The conification kernel is the object of D ^{b} (k _{X×X} ) given by

## C _{X} = Rq _{23!} k {x

^{0}

### =tx} [1].

## Lemma 3.4. There are isomorphisms:

## C _{X} ' (C _{X} ) ^{r} , (3.1)

## C _{X} ' k _{r(Γ}

_{µ}

_{)} ◦

### R

^{+}

### ×X k _{Γ}

_{p}

## [1], C _{X} ' k _{r(Γ}

_{p}

_{)} ◦

### R

^{+}

### ×X k _{Γ}

_{µ}

## [1], (3.2)

## C X ◦

### X k r(Γ

µ### ) ' C X ◦

### X k r(Γ

p### ) , k Γ

µ## ◦

### X C X ' k Γ

p## ◦

### X C X . (3.3)

## Proof. Set e(t, x, x ^{0} ) = (t ^{−1} , x ^{0} , x). Then q _{23} e = rq _{23} and e({x ^{0} = tx}) = {x ^{0} = tx}. Hence

## Rq _{23!} k {x

^{0}

### =tx} ' Rq _{23!} Re ! k {x

^{0}

### =tx} ' Rr ! Rq _{23!} k {x

^{0}

### =tx} . This proves (3.1).

## Consider the projection q : X × (R ^{+} × X) × X − → R ^{+} × X × X, (x, t, e x, x ^{0} ) 7→ (t, x, x ^{0} ) and set q ^{0} _{14} = q _{23} q. One has

## k _{r(Γ}

_{µ}

_{)} ◦

### R

^{+}

### ×X k _{Γ}

_{p}

## = Rq ^{0} _{14!} k _{{x=t}

### e x, x

^{0}

### = x} e

## ' Rq _{23!} Rq _{!} k {x=t x, x e

^{0}

### =e x} ' Rq _{23!} k {x

^{0}

### =tx} . This proves the first isomorphism in (3.2). The second one follows using (2.8) and (3.1).

## Consider the projection q : R ^{+} × X × X × X × R ^{+} − → X × X × R ^{+} , (t, x, x ^{0} , x ^{00} , t ^{0} ) 7→ (x, x ^{00} , t ^{0} ). Consider the subsets of the source space

## M = {(t, x, x ^{0} , x ^{00} , t ^{0} ) : x ^{0} = tx, x ^{0} = t ^{0} x ^{00} }, P = {(t, x, x ^{0} , x ^{00} , t ^{0} ) : x ^{0} = tx, x ^{0} = x ^{00} }.

## By (2.9) one has C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{µ}

_{)} ' Rq _{!} k _{M} [1], C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{p}

_{)} ' Rq _{!} k _{P} [1].

## Let e(t, x, x ^{0} , x ^{00} , t ^{0} ) = (tt ^{0} , x, t ^{0} x ^{0} , x ^{00} , t ^{0} ). Since q = q e and e(P ) = M , one has

## Rq _{!} k _{P} ' Rq _{!} Re _{!} k _{P} ' Rq _{!} k _{e(P )} ' Rq _{!} k _{M} .

## This proves the first isomorphism in (3.3). The second one follows using

## (2.8) and (3.1).

## Note that for F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{X} ) there is a natural morphism

## (3.4) α : F − → F ^{c} ,

## defined as follows. Consider the embedding j : X − → R ^{+} × X, x 7→ (1, x).

## Then α is given by the composite

## F ' Rµ _{!} Rj _{!} j ^{!} p ^{!} F − → Rµ _{!} p ^{!} F ' F ^{c} . In terms of kernels, this is induced by the morphism

## k _{{t=1, x}

^{0}

_{=tx}} − → RΓ ^{∼} _{{t=1}} k _{{x}

^{0}

_{=tx}} [1] − → k _{{x}

^{0}

_{=tx}} [1], noticing that Rq _{23!} k _{{t=1, x}

^{0}

_{=tx}} ' k _{∆}

_{X}

## .

## Proposition 3.5. Let F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{X} ).

## (i) There are isomorphisms F ^{c} ' F ◦

### X C _{X} ' C _{X} ◦

### X F . (ii) F ^{c} is R ^{+} -conic.

## (iii) F is R ^{+} -conic if and only if the morphism α in (3.4) is an iso- morphism.

## (iv) The functor (·) ^{c} is left adjoint to the fully faithful embedding D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) − → D ^{b} (k _{X} ). In particular, F ^{cc} ' F ^{c} .

## (v) Similar results hold for the right conification ^{c} F ' [C _{X} , F ]

### X . Proof. (i) The isomorphism F ◦

### X C _{X} ' C _{X} ◦

### X F follows from (2.8) and (3.1). The isomorphism F ^{c} ' C _{X} ◦

### X F follows from (3.2).

## (ii) We have to prove that µ ^{−1} (F ^{c} ) ' p ^{−1} (F ^{c} ). This is equivalent to F ◦ X C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{µ}

_{)} ' F ◦

### X C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{p}

_{)} , which follows from (3.3).

## (iii) If α is an isomorphism, then F is R ^{+} -conic by (ii). If F is R ^{+} -conic, then F ^{c} = Rp _{!} µ ^{−1} F [1] ' Rp _{!} p ^{−1} F [1] ' F . Here, the last isomorphism follows from the isomorphism k r(Γ

p### ) ◦

### R

^{+}

### ×X k Γ

p## ' k ∆

X## [−1].

## (iv) Let F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{X} ) and H ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ). By the analogue of (iii) for the right conification functor, one has H ' ^{c} H. Then

## Hom _{D}

b### (k

X### ) (F, H) ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

X### ) (F, ^{c} H) ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

X### ) (F ^{c} , H) ' Hom _{D}

b
R+

### (k

X### ) (F ^{c} , H).

## (v) The similar results for the right conification functor can be obtained by adjunction. For example, let us show that ^{c} F is R ^{+} -conic. For any G ∈ D ^{b} (k _{R}

^{+}

_{×X} ) one has

## Hom _{D}

b### (k

_{R+×X}

### ) (G, µ ^{!} ( ^{c} F )) ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

X### ) ((Rµ _{!} G) ^{c} , F )

## ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

X### ) ((Rp _{!} G) ^{c} , F )

## ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

_{R+×X}

### ) (G, p ^{!} ( ^{c} F )),

## where the second isomorphism follows from (3.3). Hence µ ^{!} ( ^{c} F ) ' p ^{!} ( ^{c} F ).

## 4. Conified sheaves

## Let X be a locally compact topological space endowed with an R ^{+} - action.

## Notation 4.1. Let S ⊂ X be a locally closed subset.

## (i) Denote by D ^{b} _{hSi} (k _{X} ) the full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{X} ) whose objects F satisfy F X\S = 0.

## (ii) Denote by D ^{b} _{S} (k X ) the full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k X ) whose objects F satisfy RΓ X\S F = 0.

## Definition 4.2. Let us say that a subset Y ⊂ X is R ^{+} -simple if it is locally closed and if the multiplication µ induces a topological isomor- phism between R ^{+} × Y and the set R ^{+} Y ⊂ X endowed with the induced topology.

## Lemma 4.3. If Y is R ^{+} -simple, then R ^{+} Y is locally closed in X.

## Proof. Since Y is locally closed, it is locally compact. Then R ^{+} × Y is locally compact, and thus so is R ^{+} Y for the induced topology. It follows

## that R ^{+} Y is locally closed in X.

## Proposition 4.4. Let i : Y − → X be the embedding of an R ^{+} -simple subset. There are equivalences

## D ^{b} (k _{Y} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b} _{R}

+### ,hR

^{+}

### Y i (k _{X} ), G 7→ (Ri _{!} G) ^{c} , D ^{b} (k _{Y} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b} _{R}

+### ,R

^{+}

### Y (k _{X} ), G 7→ ^{c} (Ri ∗ G), with quasi inverses i ^{−1} [−1] and i ^{!} [1], respectively.

## Proof. (i) For the first equivalence, it is enough to prove that for G ∈ D ^{b} (k _{Y} ) and F ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) there are isomorphisms

## (4.1) i ^{−1} ((Ri _{!} G) ^{c} ) ' G[1], (Ri _{!} i ^{−1} F ) ^{c} ' F _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} [1].

## In fact, (4.1) proves in particular that (Ri _{!} G) ^{c} ∈ D ^{b} _{hR}

+### Y i (k _{Y} ), since one has

## (Ri _{!} G) ^{c} ' (Ri _{!} i ^{−1} ((Ri _{!} G) ^{c} )) ^{c} [−1] ' ((Ri _{!} G) ^{c} ) _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} . (i-a) One has

## i ^{−1} ((Ri _{!} G) ^{c} ) ' G ◦

### Y k _{Γ}

_{i}

## ◦

### X C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{i}

_{)} .

## Consider the projection q : Y × X × R ^{+} × X × Y − → Y × Y given by q(y, x, t, x ^{0} , y ^{0} ) = (y, y ^{0} ) and the subset

## Q = {(y, x, t, x ^{0} , y ^{0} ) : x = i(y), x ^{0} = tx, x ^{0} = i(y ^{0} )}

## of the source space. Since Y is R ^{+} -simple, the equality i(y ^{0} ) = ti(y) implies t = 1. Hence

## k _{Γ}

_{i}

## ◦

### X C _{X} ◦

### X k _{r(Γ}

_{i}

_{)} ' Rq _{!} k _{Q} [1] ' k _{∆}

_{Y}

## [1].

## This proves the first isomorphism in (4.1).

## (i-b) For the second isomorphism, since F ' F ^{c} one has (Ri _{!} i ^{−1} F ) ^{c} ' ((F ^{c} ) _{Y} ) ^{c} ' F ◦

### X C _{X} ◦

### X k _{Y} ◦

### X C _{X} .

## Here, k Y denotes the sheaf on X × X, extension by zero of the constant sheaf on Y ⊂ X = ∆ X ⊂ X × X.

## Consider the map q : X × R ^{+} × X × R ^{+} × X − → X × R ^{+} × X given by q(x, t, x ^{0} , t ^{0} , x ^{00} ) = (x, tt ^{0} , x ^{00} ) and the subset

## Q = {(x, t, x ^{0} , t ^{0} , x ^{00} ) : x ^{0} = tx, x ^{0} ∈ Y, x ^{00} = t ^{0} x ^{0} }

## of the source space. Since Y is R ^{+} -simple, q induces a topological iso- morphism between Q and the subset

## P = {(x, t ^{00} , x ^{00} ) : x, x ^{00} ∈ R ^{+} Y, x ^{00} = t ^{00} x}

## of the target space. Hence C _{X} ◦

### X k _{Y} ◦

### X C _{X} ' Rp _{!} Rq _{!} k _{Q} [2] ' Rp _{!} k _{P} [2] ' R(j × j) _{!} C _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} [1], where j : R ^{+} Y − → X is the embedding and p : X × R ^{+} × X − → X × X the projection. Then

## (Ri _{!} i ^{−1} F ) ^{c} ' F ◦

### X R(j × j) _{!} C _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} [1] ' Rj _{!} (F | _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} ◦

### R

^{+}

### Y C _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} )[1] ' Rj _{!} (F | _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} )[1] ' F _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} [1], where the third isomorphism is due to the fact that F | _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} is conic.

## (ii) For the second equivalence in the statement, it is enough to prove that for G ∈ D ^{b} (k _{Y} ) and F ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) there are isomorphisms (4.2) i ^{!} ( ^{c} (Ri ! G)) ' G[−1], ^{c} (Ri ∗ i ^{!} F ) ' RΓ _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} F [−1].

## These can be deduced from (4.1) by adjunction. For example, the second isomorphism follows by noticing that for any F ^{0} ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{X} ) one has Hom (F ^{0} , RΓ _{R}

^{+}

_{Y} F [−1]) ' Hom (F _{R} ^{0}

+### Y [1], F )

## ' Hom ((Ri _{!} i ^{−1} F ^{0} ) ^{c} , F ) ' Hom (F ^{0} , Ri ∗ i ^{!} ( ^{c} F )) ' Hom (F ^{0c} , Ri ∗ i ^{!} F ) ' Hom (F ^{0} , ^{c} (Ri ∗ i ^{!} F )),

## where the fourth equivalence follows from the fact that F and F ^{0} are

## conic.

## Let Y, Z be locally compact spaces endowed with an R ^{+} -action. Let X = Y × Z be endowed with the diagonal R ^{+} -action. Let z _{◦} ∈ Z be such that R ^{+} acts regularly on the orbit R ^{+} z _{◦} (i.e. µ induces an isomorphism R ^{+} × {z _{◦} } ' R ^{+} z _{◦} ). Then the embedding

## i : Y − → X, y 7→ (y, z ◦ ) identifies Y with an R ^{+} -simple closed subset of X.

## Lemma 4.5. For G ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{Y} ) there is an isomorphism (Ri ! G) ^{c} ' G k R

^{+}

### z

◦## [1].

## Proof. As G ' G ^{c} , it is enough to prove the isomorphism in D ^{b} (k _{Y ×Y ×Z} ) C _{Y} ◦

### Y k _{Γ}

_{i}

## ◦

### X C _{X} ' C _{Y} k R

^{+}

### z

◦## [1].

## Denote by w = (t, y, y ^{0} , t ^{0} , y ^{00} , z, y ^{000} , z ^{0} ) a point of R ^{+} × Y × Y × R ^{+} × Y × Z × Y × Z, and set Q = {y ^{0} = ty, y ^{0} = y ^{00} , z = z ◦ , y ^{000} = t ^{0} y ^{00} , z ^{0} = t ^{0} z}.

## By (2.9) one has

## C Y ◦

### Y k Γ

i## ◦

### X C X ' Rq _{!} k Q [2],

## for q(w) = (y, y ^{000} , z ^{0} ). Set e(w) = (tt ^{0} , y, t ^{0} y ^{0} , t ^{0−1} , t ^{0} y ^{00} , z, y ^{000} , z ^{0} ). Then qe = q and e(Q) = {y ^{000} = ty, y ^{0} = y ^{00} = y ^{000} , z = z ◦ , z ◦ = t ^{0} z ^{0} }. As R ^{+} acts regularly on the orbit of z ◦ , one has

## Rq _{!} k Q ' Rq _{!} k _{e(Q)} ' (Rq _{23!} k {y

^{000}

### =ty} ) k R

^{+}

### z

◦## .

## Lemma 4.6. Let A ⊂ Y be a locally closed subset. Then there is an isomorphism

## (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{c} ' k _{R}

^{+}

_{i(A)} [1].

## 5. Fourier-Sato transform

## Here, we recall the definition and main properties of the Fourier-Sato transform, referring to [9, §3.7] for details.

## Let V and V ^{∗} be dual real vector spaces by the pairing V × V ^{∗} − → R, (x, y) 7→ hx, yi.

## They are endowed with a natural R ^{+} -action.

## Definition 5.1. The Fourier-Sato transform and its adjoint are the func- tors

## (·) ^{∧} : D ^{b} (k _{V} ) − → D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V}

^{∗}

## ), F 7→ F ◦

### V k {hx,yi≤0} , (·) ^{∨} : D ^{b} (k V

^{∗}

## ) − → D ^{b} _{R}

+## (k V ), G 7→ [k {hx,yi≤0} , G] _{V}

_{∗}

## .

## One uses the same notations when interchanging the roles of V and V ^{∗} .

## Theorem 5.2 ([9, Theorem 3.7.9]). The Fourier-Sato transform induces an equivalence of categories

## (·) ^{∧} : D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V}

^{∗}

## ) with quasi-inverse (·) ^{∨} .

## Denote by n the dimension of V. For F ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} ) one has

## (5.1) F ^{∨} ' F ^{∧a} [n],

## where G ^{a} = a ^{−1} G for a the antipodal map a(y) = −y.

## Let V _{i} (i = 1, 2) be a real vector space of dimension n _{i} . Denote by

### t f : V _{2} ^{∗} − → V _{1} ^{∗} the transpose of a linear map f : V _{1} − → V _{2} . For F _{i} ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V}

_{i}

## ), one has

## (F _{1} F 2 ) ^{∧} ' F _{1} ^{∧} F 2 ^{∧} , (5.2)

## (Rf _{!} F 1 ) ^{∧} ' ^{t} f ^{−1} (F _{1} ^{∧} ), (5.3)

## (f ^{−1} F _{2} ) ^{∧} ' R ^{t} f _{!} (F _{2} ^{∧} )[n _{2} − n _{1} ].

## (5.4)

## Denote by s : V × V − → V the vector sum s(x _{1} , x _{2} ) = x _{1} + x _{2} . The convolution of F, F ^{0} ∈ D ^{b} (k _{V} ) is defined by

## F ∗ F ^{0} = Rs _{!} (F F ^{0} ).

## Following [17] (see also [6]), the right adjoint to the convolution is given by

## Hom ^{∗} (F, F ^{0} ) = Rs _{∗} RHom (q ^{−1} _{2} F ^{a} , q _{1} ^{!} F ^{0} ).

## Noticing that the diagonal embedding is the transpose of the vector sum, for F, F ^{0} ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} ) one gets

## (5.5) (F ⊗ F ^{0} ) ^{∧} ' F ^{∧} ∗ F ^{0∧} [n].

## By adjunction one then has

## (5.6) Hom (F, F ^{0} ) ^{∨} ' Hom ^{∗} (F ^{∨} , F ^{0∨} ).

## Let us end this section by recalling some computations of Fourier trans- forms that we shall use later.

## A subset γ ⊂ V such that γ = R ^{+} γ is called a cone. A cone γ is called proper if it contains no lines. Note that γ is convex if and only if γ + γ = γ. The polar of γ ⊂ V is the cone

## γ ^{◦} = {y ∈ V ^{∗} : hx, yi ≥ 0, ∀x ∈ γ}.

## Lemma 5.3 ([9, Lemma 3.7.10]). (i) Let γ ⊂ V be a proper closed convex cone containing the origin. Then

## k ^{∧} _{γ} ' k _{Intγ}

^{◦}

## . (ii) Let γ ⊂ V be an open convex cone. Then

## k ^{∧} _{γ} ' k γ

^{◦a}

## [−n].

## Let V = R ^{p} × R ^{q} × R ^{r} . Denote (x ^{0} , x ^{00} , x ^{000} ) the coordinate system on V and by (y ^{0} , y ^{00} , y ^{000} ) the dual coordinate system on V ^{∗} . Set

## x ^{02} = x ^{02} _{1} + · · · + x ^{02} _{p} , x ^{002} = x ^{002} _{1} + · · · + x ^{002} _{q} . Lemma 5.4 ([11, Lemma 6.2.1]). Let

## γ = {x ^{02} − x ^{002} ≤ 0, x ^{000} = 0}

## be a quadratic cone. Then

## k ^{∧} _{γ} ' k {y

^{02}

### −y

^{002}

### ≥0} [−q].

## Proof. The transpose of the embedding i : R ^{p} × R ^{q} − → V, (x ^{0} , x ^{00} ) 7→

## (x ^{0} , x ^{00} , 0), is the projection p : V ^{∗} − → R ^{p} × R ^{q} . By (5.3), one has k ^{∧} _{{x}

02### −x

^{002}

### ≤0, x

^{000}

### =0} ' (Ri _{!} k {x

^{02}

### −x

^{002}

### ≤0} ) ^{∧} ' p ^{−1} (k ^{∧} _{{x}

02### −x

^{002}

### ≤0} ).

## We thus reduce to the case r = 0, discussed in [11, Lemma 6.2.1]. 6. Conified Fourier-Sato transform

## Here, in order to apply the Fourier-Sato transform to not necessarily conic sheaves, we will compensate the lack of homogeneity by adding an extra variable.

## As in the previous section, let V and V ^{∗} be dual real vector spaces.

## Note that the conification functor on vector spaces can be expressed in terms of the Fourier-Sato transform:

## Lemma 6.1. For F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{V} ) one has

## F ^{c} ' F ^{∧∧a} [n], F ^{∧} ' F ^{c∧} ,

### c F ' F ^{∨∨a} [−n], F ^{∨} ' ( ^{c} F ) ^{∨} .

## Proof. Since the arguments are similar, we will only discuss the first two isomorphisms.

## For H ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} ) one has H ' H ^{∨∧} ' H ^{∨∨a} [−n]. Hence there are isomorphisms

## Hom _{D}

b### (k

_{V}

### ) (F, H) ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

_{V}

### ) (F, H ^{∨∨a} [−n]) ' Hom _{D}

b### (k

_{V}

### ) (F ^{∧∧a} [n], H) ' Hom _{D}

b
R+

### (k

V### ) (F ^{∧∧a} [n], H).

## By Proposition 3.5 (iv) and by uniqueness of the left adjoint, it follows that F ^{c} ' F ^{∧∧a} [n]. One then has F ^{c∧} ' F ^{∧∧a∧} [n] ' F ^{∧∨∧} ' F ^{∧} .

## Consider the dual vector spaces

## V = V × R, e V e ^{∗} = V ^{∗} × R

## by the pairing h(x, s), (y, t)i = hx, yi + st.

## Notation 6.2. (i) Denote by D ^{b} _{∗{t≥0}} (k _{V} _{e}

∗## ) the full triangulated sub- category of D ^{b} (k _{e} _{V}

∗## ) whose objects G satisfy G ∗ k {t≥0, y=0}

## − → G, ∼

## or equivalently G ∗ k {t>0, y=0} = 0.

## (ii) Denote by D ^{b} _{{t≥0}}

∗## (k _{V} _{e}

∗## ) the full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{V} _{e}

∗## ) whose objects G satisfy G − → Hom ^{∼} ^{∗} (k {t≥0, y=0} , G), or equiva- lently Hom ^{∗} (k {t>0, y=0} , G) = 0.

## Let us identify V with an R ^{+} -simple subset of e V by the embedding i : V − → e V, x 7→ (x, −1).

## Theorem 6.3. There are equivalences D ^{b} (k _{V} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,∗{t≥0} (k

### e V

^{∗}

## ), F 7→ (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} , D ^{b} (k _{V} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,{t≥0}

^{∗}

## (k

### e V

^{∗}

## ), F 7→ (Ri ∗ F ) ^{∨} ,

## with quasi inverses G 7→ i ^{−1} (G ^{∨} )[−1] and G 7→ i ^{!} (G ^{∧} )[1], respectively.

## The category D ^{b} _{∗{t≥0}} (k

### V e

^{∗}

## ) is of the kind of categories discussed by Tamarkin in [17]. In Appendix A we show how the above functor F 7→

## (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} is expressed in terms of the Fourier transform considered in [17].

## Proof. As the proofs are similar, we will only discuss the first equivalence.

## By Proposition 4.4, there is an equivalence D ^{b} (k _{V} ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,h{s<0}i (k

### V e ), F 7→ (Ri _{!} F ) ^{c} ,

## with quasi-inverse i ^{−1} [−1]. Since (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} ' (Ri _{!} F ) ^{c∧} , by Theorem 5.2 we are left to prove that the Fourier-Sato transform between e V and e V ^{∗} induces an equivalence

## (6.1) D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,h{s<0}i (k

### V e ) − → D ^{∼} ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,∗{t≥0} (k

### V e

^{∗}

## ).

## By (5.2) and Lemma 5.3 (i) one has

## k ^{∧} _{{s≥0}} ' (k _{V} k {s≥0} ) ^{∧} ' k ^{∧} _{V} k ^{∧} {s≥0} ' k {t>0, y=0} [−n].

## Let H ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} _{e} ). By (5.5), one has

## (H ⊗ k {s≥0} ) ^{∧} ' H ^{∧} ∗ k {t>0, y=0} [1].

## Hence the conditions H ⊗ k {s≥0} = 0 and H ^{∧} ∗ k {t>0, y=0} = 0 are equiv-

## alent.

## Remark 6.4. It follows from (5.1) that

## (Ri ∗ F ) ^{∨} ' (Ri ! F ) ^{∧a} [n + 1].

## Thus, Theorem 6.3 implies that for G ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k

### e V

^{∗}

## ) the two conditions G ∗ k {t>0, y=0} = 0, Hom ^{∗} (k {t<0, y=0} , G) = 0,

## are equivalent.

## Remark 6.5. One can recast the equivalence (6.1) in terms of the theory of microsupport from [9]. Recall that the microsupport of F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{V} ) is a closed conic involutive subset SS(F ) ⊂ T ^{∗} V of the cotangent bundle.

## For A ⊂ T ^{∗} V, denote by D ^{b} _{µ A} (k _{V} ) the full subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{V} ) whose objects F satisfy SS(F ) ⊂ A. Denote by π : T ^{∗} V − → V the projection.

## Since supp(F ) = π(SS(F )), for S ⊂ V one has D ^{b} _{S} (k _{V} ) = D ^{b} _{µ π}

−1### (S) (k _{V} ).

## (i) From the adjunction isomorphism

## Hom (F ⊗ k {s≥0} , F ^{0} ) ' Hom (F, RΓ {s≥0} (F ^{0} )) one deduces that D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,h{s<0}i (k

### V e ) is the left orthogonal to D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,µ {s≥0} (k

### V e ).

## (ii) Note that, using t ∈ R as coordinate, the associated symplectic co- ordinates in T ^{∗} R are (t; s). By Tamarkin [17], D ^{b} _{R}

^{+}

_{,∗{t≥0}} (k _{V} _{e}

∗## ) is the left orthogonal to D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

### ,µ {s≤0} (k _{V} _{e}

∗## ).

## (iii) The equivalence (6.1) then follows from [9, Theorem 5.5.5].

## Lemma 6.6. (i) Consider the subset {hx, yi ≤ t} ⊂ V × e V ^{∗} . For F ∈ D ^{b} (k _{V} ) one has

## (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} ' F ◦

### V k _{{hx,yi≤t}} .

## In particular, F ^{∧} ' (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} | _{V}

^{∗}

### ×{0} and (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} | {y=0, t<0} = 0.

## (ii) For F ∈ D ^{b}

### R

^{+}

## (k _{V} ) one has

## (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} ' F ^{∧} k ^{{t≥0}} . Proof. (i) is implied by the isomorphism

## k _{Γ}

_{i}

## ◦

### V e

## k {hx,yi+st≤0} ' k _{{hx,yi≤t}} .

## (ii) Recall that (Ri _{!} F ) ^{∧} ' (Ri _{!} F ) ^{c∧} . By Lemma 4.5 one has (Ri _{!} F ) ^{c} ' F k s<0 [1].

## Taking the Fourier-Sato transform, the statement follows by (5.2) and

## Lemma 5.3 (ii).

## We end this section by computing the non homogeneous Fourier trans- form of F = k _{A} for some classes of locally closed subsets A ⊂ V. Note that, by Lemma 4.6, one has

## (6.2) (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{c} ' k _{γ}

_{A}

## [1], where we denote by

## γ _{A} = R ^{+} (i(A)) ⊂ e V the cone generated by i(A).

## Let us first consider the case where A is a nonempty, closed, convex

## subset. (For the notions of support function and asymptotic cone that

## we now recall, see for example [1].)

## The asymptotic cone of A is defined by

## λ _{A} = {x ∈ V : a + R ^{+} x ⊂ A, ∃a ∈ A}

## = {x ∈ V : a + R ^{+} x ⊂ A, ∀a ∈ A}.

## It is the set of directions in which A is infinite. Under the identification V = V × {0} ⊂ e V, one has

## (6.3) λ _{A} = γ _{A} ∩ (V × {0}),

## or equivalently γ _{A} = γ _{A} t λ _{A} .

## Lemma 6.7. The cone γ _{A} is proper if and only if A contains no affine line.

## Proof. It follows from (6.3) and the definition of λ _{A} , by noticing that

## γ _{A} ⊂ {s ≤ 0}.

## The support function of A is defined by

## h _{A} : V ^{∗} − → R ∪ {+∞}, y 7→ sup

### x∈A

## hx, yi.

## It describes the signed distance from the origin of the supporting hyper- planes of A. Recall that h _{A} is positive homogeneous, lower semicontinu- ous and convex. Moreover, its effective domain (that is, the set of y ∈ V ^{∗} such that h _{A} (y) < +∞) is λ ^{◦a} _{A} .

## Lemma 6.8. One has

## γ _{A} ^{◦} = {(y, t) ∈ e V ^{∗} : y ∈ λ ^{◦} _{A} , t ≤ −h _{A} (−y)}.

## Proof. By definition,

## γ _{A} ^{◦} = {(y, t) ∈ e V ^{∗} : t ≤ hx, yi, ∀x ∈ A}.

## It is then enough to note that inf x∈A hx, yi = −h A (−y) and to recall that

## −h A (−y) = −∞ for y / ∈ λ ^{◦} _{A} .

## Consider the projection q _{1} : e V ^{∗} = V ^{∗} × R − → V ^{∗} .

## Lemma 6.9. (i) Let A ⊂ V be a nonempty, closed, convex subset which contains no affine line. Then

## (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{∧} ' q ^{−1} _{1} k _{Intλ}

^{◦}

A

## ⊗ k {t≥−h

_{A}

### (−y)} .

## (ii) Let A ⊂ V be an nonempty, open, convex subset. Then (Ri ! k A ) ^{∧} ' q ^{−1} _{1} k Intλ

^{◦a}

_{A}

## ⊗ k {t≥h

_{A}

### (y)} [−n].

## Proof. (i) Note that γ _{A} is a proper closed convex cone containing the origin and γ _{A} = γ _{A} ∩ {s < 0}. By (6.2) and Lemma 5.3 (i), we have

## (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{∧} ' k ^{∧} _{γ}

A

## [1] ' (k _{γ}

_{A}

## ⊗ k {s<0} ) ^{∧} [1] ' k _{Intγ}

^{◦}

A

## ∗ k {t≥0, y=0} [1].

## By Lemma 6.8,

## Intγ _{A} ^{◦} = {(y, t) ∈ e V ^{∗} : y ∈ Intλ ^{◦} _{A} , t < −h _{A} (−y)}.

## Then one has k _{Intγ}

^{◦}

A

## ∗ k {t≥0, y=0} ' k {y∈Intλ

^{◦}

_{A}

### , t≥−h

A### (−y)} [−1].

## (ii) By (6.2), Lemma 5.3 and (5.5), we have (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{∧} ' k ^{∧} _{γ}

A

## [1] ' k _{Intγ}

^{◦a}

A

## [−n],

## and one concludes by Lemma 6.8.

## Let us now treat a non convex case. We consider the geometric sit- uation of Lemma 5.4, so that (x ^{0} , x ^{00} , x ^{000} ) is the coordinate system on V = R ^{p} × R ^{q} × R ^{r} , and (y ^{0} , y ^{00} , y ^{000} ) is the dual coordinate system on V ^{∗} . Lemma 6.10. For c ≥ 0, consider the quadric

## A = {(x ^{0} , x ^{00} ) ∈ V : x ^{02} − x ^{002} ≤ c ^{2} , x ^{000} = 0}

## and set

## g(y) =

## ( cpy ^{02} − y ^{002} , for y ^{02} − y ^{002} ≥ 0,

## 0, else.

## Then

## (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{∧} ' q ^{−1} _{1} k _{{y}

^{02}

_{−y}

^{002}

_{≥0}} ⊗ k _{{t≥−g(y)}} [−q].

## Proof. For c = 0 the sheaf k _{A} is conic. The statement then follows from Lemmas 5.4 and 6.6.

## For c > 0 one has γ _{A} = {x ^{02} − x ^{002} ≤ c ^{2} s ^{2} } ∩ {s < 0}. By (6.2), Lemma 5.4 and (5.5), it follows that

## (Ri _{!} k _{A} ) ^{∧} ' k ^{∧} _{γ}

_{A}

## [1] ' (k {x

^{02}

### −x

^{002}

### ≤c

^{2}

### s

^{2}

### } ⊗ k {s<0} ) ^{∧} [1]

## ' k {y

^{02}

### −y

^{002}

### ≥(1/c

^{2}

### )t

^{2}

### } ∗ k {t≥0, y=0} [−q].

## Since

## {y ^{02} − y ^{002} ≥ (1/c ^{2} )t ^{2} } = {y ^{02} − y ^{002} ≥ 0, |t| ≤ c p

## y ^{02} − y ^{002} }, one has

## k _{{y}

^{02}

_{−y}

^{002}

_{≥(1/c}

^{2}

_{)t}

^{2}

_{}} ∗ k _{{t≥0, y=0}} ' k

### {y

^{02}

### −y

^{002}

### ≥0, t≥−c √

### y

^{02}

### −y

^{002}

### }

## 7. Exponential growth: real case

## Here, in order to treat functions with exponential growth, we will gen- eralize the construction of the sheaf of tempered functions of [12] (see also [15]).

## Let X be a real analytic manifold. From now on we set k = C. Denote by D ^{b}

### R-c (k _{X} ) the full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{X} ) whose objects

## have R-constructible cohomology groups.

## Denote by X sa the subanalytic site. This is the site whose objects are open subanalytic subsets of X and whose coverings are locally finite in X. One calls subanalytic sheaf on X a sheaf on X _{sa} .

## Consider the natural map

## ρ : X − → X _{sa} .

## Besides the usual right adjoint ρ ∗ , the pull-back functor ρ ^{−1} has a left adjoint ρ _{!} . The push-forward ρ ∗ induces a fully faithful exact functor from R-constructible sheaves to subanalytic sheaves. One thus identifies D ^{b} _{R-c} (k _{X} ) as a full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{X}

_{sa}

## ).

## Denoting by Db _{X} the sheaf of Schwartz’s distributions, the subanalytic sheaf Db ^{t} _{X} of tempered distributions is defined by

## Db ^{t} _{X} (U ) = Db _{X} (X)/Γ _{X\U} (X; Db _{X} )

## for U ⊂ X an open subanalytic subset. The sheaf Db ^{t} _{X} is acyclic on X _{sa} . One says that a function ϕ on U has polynomial growth at x ◦ ∈ X if it satisfies the following condition. For a local coordinate system at x ◦ , there exist a sufficiently small compact neighborhood K of x ◦ and constants c ≥ 0, m ∈ Z ^{>0} such that

## (7.1) |ϕ(x)| ≤ c

## 1 + 1

## dist(K \ U, x)

## m

## , ∀x ∈ K ∩ U,

## where “dist” denotes the euclidean distance on the domain of the coor- dinates.

## One says that ϕ has polynomial growth on X if it has polynomial growth at any x ◦ ∈ X.

## One says that ϕ ∈ C _{X} ^{∞} (U ) is tempered if all of its derivatives have polynomial growth.

## The subanalytic sheaf of tempered smooth functions is defined by C _{X} ^{∞,t} : U 7→ {ϕ ∈ C _{X} ^{∞} (U ) : ϕ is tempered}.

## It is an acyclic sheaf on X sa .

## Denote by D _{X} the ring of analytic finite order differential operators.

## Since sections of ρ _{∗} D _{X} do not take growth conditions into account, the sheaves Db ^{t} _{X} and C _{X} ^{∞,t} are not ρ ∗ D _{X} -modules. However, they are ρ _{!} D _{X} - modules.

## Recall that a function δ : X − → R is called subanalytic if its graph is a subanalytic subset of X × R. By Lojasiewicz inequalities one has

## Lemma 7.1. The estimate (7.1) is equivalent to

## |ϕ(x)| ≤ c

## 1 + 1 δ(x)

## m

## , ∀x ∈ K ∩ U,

## for δ ≥ 0 a continuous subanalytic function on K such that K ∩ ∂U =

## {δ(x) = 0}.

## Let j : X − → X ^{0} be an open subanalytic embedding of real analytic manifolds. Denote by X _{j-sa} the site structure induced on X by X _{sa} ^{0} . This is the site whose objects are open subsets of X which are subanalytic in X ^{0} and whose coverings are locally finite in X ^{0} . Let us call j-subanalytic such open subsets.

## Let us say that a sheaf F on X is j-R-constructible if Rj ! F is R- constructible in X ^{0} . Denote by D ^{b} _{j-R-c} (k _{X} ) the full triangulated category of D ^{b} (k _{X} ) whose objects have j-R-constructible cohomology groups. We identify D ^{b} _{j-R-c} (k _{X} ) to a full triangulated subcategory of D ^{b} (k _{X}

_{j-sa}

## ).

## The following sheaves on X _{j-sa} take into account growth conditions at infinity

## Db ^{t} _{X|X}

0 ## = Db ^{t} _{X}

0
## X

j-sa## , C _{X|X} ^{∞,t}

0 ## = C _{X} ^{∞,t}

0
## X

j-sa## .

## Note that these are not sheaves of ρ _{!} D _{X} -modules, but modules over the ring ρ ! D X

^{0}

## | X

j-sa## .

## Set

## X = X × R, e X e ^{0} = X ^{0} × P(R), where P(R) denotes the real projective line.

## A function f : X − → R is called j-subanalytic if its graph is subanalytic in e X ^{0} . Note that by Lojasiewicz inequalities such an f has polynomial growth.

## Let f : X − → R be a continuous j-subanalytic function and U ⊂ X an open j-subanalytic subset. One says that a function ϕ on U has f - exponential growth at x ◦ ∈ X ^{0} if it satisfies the following condition. For a local coordinate system at x ◦ , there exist a sufficiently small compact neighborhood K of x ◦ and constants c ≥ 0, m ∈ Z ^{>0} such that

## |ϕ(x)| ≤ c

## 1 + 1

## dist(K \ U, x) + |f (x)|

## m

## e ^{f (x)} , ∀x ∈ K ∩ U.

## Note that one gets an equivalent definition by replacing the function dist(K \ U, ·) with a subanalytic function δ as in Lemma 7.1.

## One says that ϕ has f -exponential growth on X ^{0} if it has f -exponential growth at any x ◦ ∈ X ^{0} .

## One says that ϕ ∈ C _{X} ^{∞} (U ) is f -tempered if all of its derivatives have f -exponential growth.

## Definition 7.2. The presheaf of f -tempered smooth functions on the site X _{j-sa} is defined by

## C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0## : U 7→ {ϕ ∈ C _{X} ^{∞} (U ) : ϕ is f -tempered}.

## It is a presheaf of ρ _{!} D _{X}

^{0}

## | _{X}

_{j-sa}

## -modules.

## Note that “(f + c)-tempered” is the same as “f -tempered” for c ∈ R.

## One has

## C _{X|X} ^{∞,t}

0 ## = C _{X|X} ^{∞,[0]}

0## .

## Let us show how f -tempered functions are related with tempered func- tions with one additional variable.

## Denote by q _{1} : e X = X × R − → X the projection. Let s ∈ R be the coordinate and denote by D _{R} the ring of differential operators with poly- nomial coefficients.

## Proposition 7.3. Let f : X − → R be a continuous j-subanalytic function.

## There are isomorphisms

## C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0 ## ' Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {s<−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

R

## (D _{R} e ^{s} , C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## )) ' Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {s≥−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

R

## (D _{R} e ^{s} , C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ))[1], C _{X|X} ^{∞,t}

0 ## ' Rq _{1∗} RHom _{D}

R

## (D _{R} e ^{is} , C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ).

## In particular, the complexes on the right hand side are concentrated in degree zero and the presheaf C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0 ## is an acyclic sheaf.

## Proof. (i) Let us prove the first isomorphism. Set C = Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {s<−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

R

## (D _{R} e ^{s} , C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## )).

## For U ⊂ X a j-subanalytic open subset, one has (7.2) RΓ (U ; C) ' (E − ^{∂} −−

^{s}

^{−1} → E),

## where the complex on the right hand side is in degrees 0 and 1, and E = Γ (q ^{−1} _{1} U ∩ {s < −f (x)}; C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ).

## (i-a) To prove that C is concentrated in degree zero, it is enough to show the surjectivity of ∂ _{s} − 1 in (7.2).

## Let γ : X − → R be a C ^{∞} function such that −2 < f + γ < −1. For Ψ ∈ E, a C ^{∞} solution Φ to (∂ _{s} − 1)Φ = Ψ is given by

## (7.3) Φ(x, s) = e ^{s}

## Z s γ(x)

## e ^{−u} Ψ(x, u) du.

## We are thus left to prove that Φ ∈ E. Since the estimates for the deriva- tives of Φ are similar, let us only show that Φ has polynomial growth.

## Since Ψ has polynomial growth, by Lemma 7.1 any x ◦ ∈ X ^{0} has a com- pact neighborhood K such that there are constants c, m with

## |Ψ(x, s)| ≤ c

## 1 + 1

## dist(K \ U, x) + |s| + 1

## |s + f (x)|

## m

## ,

## ∀x ∈ K ∩ U, ∀s < −f (x).

## Then (7.3) implies

## |Φ(x, s)| ≤ ce ^{s}

## Z s γ(x)

## e ^{−u}

## 1 + 1

## dist(K \ U, x) + |u| + 1

## |u + f (x)|

## m

## du

## .

## One thus deduces that Φ has polynomial growth from Lemma 7.4 below.

## (i-b) By (7.2), an element of H ^{0} RΓ (U ; C) is a solution Φ ∈ E of the equation (∂ _{s} − 1)Φ = 0. Thus Φ(x, s) = ϕ(x)e ^{s} . The map

## C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0## (U ) − → H ^{0} RΓ (U ; C), ϕ(x) 7→ ϕ(x)e ^{s}

## is well defined. To show that it is an isomorphism, we have to prove that it is surjective. Given Φ(x, s) = ϕ(x)e ^{s} with Φ ∈ E, there is an estimate

## |ϕ(x)|e ^{s} ≤ c

## 1 + 1

## dist(K \ U, x) + |s| + 1

## |s + f (x)|

## m

## ,

## ∀x ∈ K ∩ U, ∀s < −f (x).

## Taking s = −f (x) − 1, we see that ϕ has f -exponential growth. A similar argument holds for the derivatives of Φ.

## (ii) The second isomorphism in the statement follows from the first one if one shows that

## Rq _{1∗} RHom _{D}

R

## (D _{R} e ^{s} , C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ) = 0.

## This is proved in a similar way to part (i) above.

## (iii) The proof of the third isomorphism in the statement is again similar

## to part (i) above taking γ = 0.

## Lemma 7.4. Let f : X − → R be a continuous j-subanalytic function and γ : X − → R a C ^{∞} function such that −2 < f + γ < −1. Then, for any m, m ^{0} ∈ Z ^{≥0} , the function defined for x ∈ X, s < −f (x) by

## e ^{s} Z s

### γ(x)

## |u| ^{m} e ^{−u}

## |u + f (x)| ^{m}

^{0}

## du has polynomial growth on e X ^{0} .

## Proof. Recall that f (x) has polynomial growth. By the estimate |u| ≤

## |u + f (x)| + |f (x)|, one reduces to prove that for m ∈ Z ^{≥0} the functions Φ(x, s) = e ^{s}

## Z s γ(x)

## |u| ^{m} e ^{−u} du, Ψ(x, s) = e ^{s} Z s

### γ(x)

## e ^{−u}

## |u + f (x)| ^{m+1} du, have polynomial growth.

## Recall that R u ^{m} e ^{−u} du = P (u)e ^{−u} for P a polynomial of degree m.

## Then

## |Φ(x, s)| ≤ c(1 + |s| ^{m} + |γ(x)| ^{m} e ^{s+γ(x)} ).

## Since γ has polynomial growth and s + γ(x) < 0, we deduce that Φ has

## polynomial growth.

## Since −2 < f + γ < −1 and s + f (x) < 0, we have

## |Ψ(x, s)| =

## e ^{s+f (x)}

## Z s+f (x) γ(x)+f (x)

## e ^{−u}

## |u| ^{m+1} du

## ≤ c 1 + e ^{s+f (x)}

## Z s+f (x)

### −1

## e ^{−u}

## |u| ^{m+1} du

## ! .

## From the estimate e ^{−u} /|u| ^{m+1} ≤ e ^{−u} + 1/|u| ^{m+2} (u < 0), we finally get

## |Ψ(x, s)| ≤ c ^{0}

## 1 + 1

## |s + f (x)| ^{m+1}

## .

## 8. Exponential growth: complex case

## Let X be a complex analytic manifold. Denote by O _{X} the sheaf of holomorphic functions and by D X the ring of holomorphic finite order differential operators.

## Denote by X the conjugate complex manifold to X, so that sections of O _{X} are conjugates of sections of O _{X} . The real analytic manifold underlying X is identified with the diagonal of X × X. By Dolbeault resolution, one has

## O X = RHom _{D}

X

### |

X## (O _{X} | X , C _{X} ^{∞}

R

## ).

## Similarly, following [12], the complex of tempered holomorphic functions is defined by

## O ^{t} _{X} = RHom _{D}

X

### |

_{X}

## (O _{X} | X , C _{X} ^{∞,t}

R

## ).

## Let j : X − → X ^{0} be an open subanalytic embedding of complex analytic manifolds. For f : X − → R a continuous j-subanalytic function, let

## O ^{[f ]} _{X|X}

0 ## = RHom _{ρ}

!

### D

X0

### |

_{Xj-sa}

## (ρ _{!} O _{X}

^{0}

## | _{X}

_{j-sa}

## , C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0## )

## be the Dolbeault complex of C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0## . In particular, O ^{t} _{X} = O ^{[0]} _{X|X} . Set O _{X|X} ^{t}

^{0}

## = O _{X|X} ^{[0]}

0## .

## Recall that if X is a complexification of M , then (8.1) Db ^{t} _{M |M}

0 ## ' RHom (F, O ^{t} _{X|X}

0## ),

## where M ^{0} is the closure of M in X ^{0} , F = RHom (k _{M} , k _{X} ) ' or _{M} [−n]

## and or M is the orientation sheaf and n the dimension of M . Denote by P(C) the complex projective line. Set

## X = X × C, e X e ^{0} = X ^{0} × P(C)

## and denote by q _{1} : e X − → X the projection.

## Proposition 8.1. There are isomorphisms in D ^{b} (ρ ! D _{X}

^{0}

## | X

j-sa## ) O _{X|X} ^{[f ]}

0 ## ' Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {Re s<−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

C

## (D _{C} e ^{s} , O ^{t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## )) ' Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {Re s≥−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

C

## (D _{C} e ^{s} , O ^{t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ))[1].

## Proof. (i) Let us prove the first isomorphism. One has O ^{t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## = RHom _{ρ}

!

### D

Xe0

### |

Xj-sae

## (ρ ! O

### X e

0

## | _{X} _{e}

j-sa

## , C ^{∞,[f ]}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ) ' RHom _{ρ}

!

### D

X0

### |

_{Xj-sa}

## (ρ _{!} O _{X}

^{0}

## | _{X}

_{j-sa}

## , RHom _{D}

C

## (D C /h∂ _{s} i, C ^{∞,[f ]}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## )), where h∂ _{s} i ⊂ D

### C denotes the left ideal generated by h∂ _{s} i. It is then enough to prove the isomorphism

## C _{X|X} ^{∞,[f ]}

0 ## '

## Rq _{1∗} RHom (k {Re s<−f (x)} , RHom _{D}

C

### D

_{C}

## (D _{C} e ^{s} D _{C} /h∂ _{s} i, C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## )).

## In the identification C = R × R given by s = λ + iµ, there is an isomor- phism of D _{R×R} -modules

## D _{C} e ^{s} D _{C} /D

### C ∂ _{s} ' D _{R} e ^{λ} D R e ^{iµ} . Moreover, one has

## C ^{∞,t}

### X| e e X

^{0}

## ' C X×R×R|X×P(R)×P(R) ^{∞,t} . The statement then follows from Proposition 7.3.

## (ii) The proof of the second isomorphism is similar. Remark 8.2. It would be interesting to consider also other growth con- ditions, like for example those used in [13] to construct Fourier hyper- functions.

## Consider the closed embedding

## i : X − → e X, x 7→ (x, −1).

## It follows from [12, Theorem 7.4.6] that one has (8.2) Ri ∗ O ^{t} _{X|X}

^{0}

## ' RHom _{D}

C

## (D _{C} δ(s + 1), O ^{t}

### X| e e X

^{0}