## PAPERS IN

## ECONOMICS

**EUI Working Paper ECO No. 92/65**

**Signal Extraction in ARIMA Time Series **
**Program SEATS**

**AGUSTIN MAR AV ALL**

**and**
**VICTOR GÓMEZ**

*w*

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© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

**EUI Working Paper ECO No. 92/65**

**Signal Extraction in ARIMA Time Series **
**Program SEATS**

**AGUSTIN M ARAVALL**
**and**

**VICTOR G 6M E Z**

**BADIA FIESOLANA, SAN DOMENICO (FI)**

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute

**without permission of the authors.**

**© Agustm Maravall and Victor G6mez **
**Printed in Italy in February 1992 **

**European University Institute **
**Badia Fiesolana **
**1-50016 San Domenico (FI)**

**Italy**
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**PROGRAM SEA TS**

**Agustfn Maravall **

European University Institute Florence, Italy

Bank of Spain Madrid, Spain (on leave)

**Victor Góm ez**

Instituto Nacional de Estadfstica Madrid, Spain

Abstract

T h is d o c u m e n t e x p la in s a p ro g ra m fo r e stim a tio n o f u n o b se rv e d c o m p o n e n ts (o r sig n a ls) in u n iv ariate tim e series. T h e pro g ram fo llo w s the A RIM A -m odel-based m e th o d firs t d e v e lo p e d by B u rm a n (1980) an d by H illm er a n d T ia o (1982); it o rig in a te d , in fa c t, fro m the seasonal a d ju stm en t pro g ram dev elo p ed by B urm an at the B an k o f E ngland.

The program fits, first, an ARIMA model to the series, and provides a detailed diagnosis. It identifies, next, the components present in the series; these are typically the trend, seasonal, and irregular components, although a separate cyclical component can also be estimated. The

ARIMA models for the components are fully specified. Minimum mean square error (MMSE)

estimates of the components are computed, as well as their forecasts. For each component, standard errors are provided for the different type of estimators (concurrent, preliminary, and historical or final estimator) and forecasts.

The structures of the theoretical component and of its MMSE estimator are analysed, and compared to the estimate actually obtained. This comparison yields additional diagnostic elements. The last part of the program contains information of applied interest, concerning the properties of the different signals used in practice (mostly, the seasonally adjusted series and the trend). A detailed analysis is made of the different types of error (i.e., the magnitude of the revisions the estimators will undergo, the duration of the revision period, the error in the final estimator), and how they affect the behavior of the rates-of-growth measures used in short-term monitoring and policy making.

Prelim inary V ersion; D ece m b e r 1991

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute

■ . ___ J_____.... . © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

**PROGRAM SE A T S**

**(Signal Extraction in Arima T im e Series)**

1. What the Program Does: Overview 3

2. Instructions for Installation and Execution 9

3. Description of the Model and of the Input Parameters 15

4. Summary of the Program Output 23

5. E xam ple 1: SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE SPANISH

MONETARY AGGREGATE 37

(Default Option of the Program)

6. Example 2: SIMULATED SERIES 95

(Nonstationary Trend, Seasonal and Cyclical Components) 7. Background Paper 149 © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

**PROGRAM SE A T S **

**(Signal Extraction in Arima Tim e Series)**

1. What the Program Does: Overview

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

time series into its unobserved components (i.e., for extracting from a time series its different signals). The method was originally devised for seasonal adjustment of economic time series (i.e., removal of the seasonal signal), and the basic references are Burman (1980), and Hillmer and Tiao (1982). Both methods are closely related to each other, and to the one followed in this program. In fact, SEATS developed from a program built by Burman for seasonal adjustment at the Bank of England (1982 version) and its present version still contains parts of Butman's program; for this, and for many fruitful comments and discussions throughout these years, I wish to express to him my deepest gratitude. Thanks are also due to Gabriele Fiorentini and Gianluca Caporello; without their help, this (preliminary) program would have never been completed. The program, in its present version, is being used at the Bank of Spain for seasonal adjustment of economic series.

The program starts by fitting an AR1MA model to the series. Let X, denote the original series, x, its Box-Cox type of transformation (most often, X| = log X ,), and

Z( = D (B) x ,, (1)

represent the "differenced" series, where B stands for the lag operator, and D(B) denotes the differences taken on xt in order to (presumably) achieve stadonarity. In SEATS,

-5 ) (/<- *& * * )&*

D (B) = V °Vm q, (2)

where V = 1 - B , and Vmq = (l - B ^ ) 80 represents seasonal differencing of period MQ. (See Section 3.)

The model can be expressed as

♦ (B) z, = 0 (B) a, + n , (3)

where

|l is a constant,

a, is a white-noise series of innovations, normally distributed with zero mean and variance a a2 . © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

0 (B) and 0 (B) are autoregressive and moving average polynomials in B, respect ively, which can be expressed in multiplicative form as the product of a regular polynomial in B and a seasonal polynomial in B1^ , say:

- \ ♦ (B) = fc(B) 4>S(BMQ), 0 (B ) = 0r (B) OsiBMQ).

Putting together (1) - (4), the complete model can be written in detailed form as

*<t»r (B) <t>s (BMQ) VD Vmq* x, = 0r (B) 0S (B“ Q) a, + p , (5a)
and, in concise form, as

♦ (B) D (B) x, = 0 (B) a, + p , (5b) or

<D (B) x, = 0 (B) a, + |X , (5c)
*where <J> (B) = 0 (B) D (B) represents the complete autoregressive polynomial, including all *
unit roots.

Notice that, if P denotes the order of 0 ( B ) , Q the order of 0 (B) , and DT the order of D (B) , so that DT = D + BD ■ MQ, then the order of <1> (B) is PT = P + DT . The program SEATS requires that PT > Q ; in practice, this constraint is of little importance.

It should be pointed out that the autoregressive polynomial 0 (B) is allowed to have unit roots, which are estimated typically with considerable precision. For example, unit roots in 0 (B) would be present if the series were to contain a nonstationary cyclical component (as in Example 2), or if the series had been underdifferenced. They can also appear as nonstationary Seasonal harmonics.

The program decomposes a series that follows model (5) into several components. The decomposition can be multiplicative or additive. Since the former becomes the second by simply taking logs, we shall use in the discussion an additive model, such as

xt = X x>t •
(4a)
(4b)
♦
(_{6})
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Xst th e SEASONAL com ponent,

Xct the CYCLICAL com ponent.

XU| the IRREGULAR com ponent.

The trend component represents the long-term evolution of the series and displays a spectral peak at frequency 0. The seasonal component captures the spectral peaks at seasonal frequencies, and the cyclical component captures periodic fluctuation with period longer than a year, and will have a spectral peak for the associated frequency, between 0 and (2 7t / MQ). Finally, the irregular component captures erratic, white-noise behavior, and hence has a flat spectrum. The components are determined and fully derived from the structure of the (aggregate) a r im a model for the observed series, model (5), which can be directly identified from the data. The program is mostly aimed at monthly or lower frequency data. It is not often that monthly, or even quarterly, ARIMA models identified for macroeconomic time series exhibit a cyclical component with constant period and frequency.

The decomposition assumes orthogonal components, and each will have in turn an

ARIMA expression. In order to identify the components, we will require (except for the irregular

one) that they be clean of noise. This is called the "canonical" property, and implies that no additive white noise can be extracted from a component that is not the irregular one. The variance of the latter is, in this way, maximized, and, on the contrary, the trend, seasonal and cycle are as stable as possible (compatible with the stochastic nature of model (5)). Although an arbitrary assumption, since any other admissible component can be expressed as the canonical one plus independent white-noise, it seems sensible to avoid contamination of the component by noise, unless there are a-priori reasons to do so.

In brief, the program does the following (at present, however, the output is ordered in a different way).

First, the ARIMA model is estimated. The model is analyzed and a detailed diagnosis is performed. Next, a frequency domain partition of the model into its components provides the filters that yield the series components estimates. The estimators are obtained as the conditional expectations given the observed series, and are thus minimum MSE estimators. Forecasts of the series and of all components are also computed. Standard errors are obtained for the different types of estimators (concurrent, preliminary, and historical or final estimator) and for the forecasts. © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

Besides the estimation part of the components and forecasts, the program performs a detailed analysis of the decomposition. The ARIMA models for the unobserved components are derived and analyzed. The structure of the theoretical minimum MSE estimator is obtained and compared with the one obtained empirically; this provides additional elements of diagnosis. The last part of the program presents information of applied interest, concerning the properties of the different signals used in practice (mostly, the seasonally adjusted series and the trend). The different types of estimation errors are analysed (i.e., the size of the revisions the estimator will undergo, the duration of the revision period, the error in the final estimator, etc.), and it is seen how these errors affect the behavior of the rates-of-growth measures used in short-term monitoring and policy making.

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

**PROGRAM S E A T S **

**(Signal Extraction in Arima Tim e Series)**

2. Instructions for Installation and Execution

INSTALLATION

Insert the diskette in drive A or B, and change the default drive (type "A:" or "B:"). When the prompt appears type:

INSTALL

The installation procedure creates a directory "SEATS";

be sure it doesn't already exist.

If you have a partitioned diskette, you will be asked in which drive the program should be written (from C to G).

TO RIJN THE PROGRAM Once in SEATS, type:

INPUT

T h is is a v ery sim p le u sa b le p ro g ram to p rep are th e in p u t file fo r th e m ain p ro g ra m (ESTIM). It sh o w s a list o f all files in the d irectory SERIES (up to a m ax im u m o f 75). If the u se r series is not in the d irectory SERIES, type "88" until the m essag e

"PLEASE TYPE THE NAME OF YOUR SERIES"

appears. Then type the filename, with the "path" extension if needed, and follow the normal procedure to set the parameters.

Once you have selected a series, it is possible to set the values of the program parameters (showing a list of all default values).

I f th e o p tio n "77" (NOSERIES) is used, no se ries is e n te re d , an d SEATS ru n s fo r an ARIMA m o d el. T h e p ro g ra m sets the p a ram eter NOSERIE = 1, an d th en 1NIT = 2 (no e stim atio n ), an d LAM = 1. (T he program also sets the varian ce o f the m o d el in n o v atio n s e q u a l to 1.) T h e re st o f the p aram eters are entered in th e usual m an n er. In th is c a s e , the u se r fin d s th e o u tp u t in the file "NOSERIE.OUT".

The program allows some simple facilities: "q" to exit

"h" to see default parameters "1" to see already set parameters.

Set the parameters typing them (one by one) according to the following simple syntax:

*Parameter-name = Parameter-value*

Once all (non-default) parameter values have been set, in the next line type "end". This creates the file "series", containing the data and parameter values ready for the main program.

(Of course, the file "series" can be edited directly.)

The file of your own series must be written according to the following format (see also
the example):
****
*seriesname*
number of observations (NZ)
starting year
starting period

frequence (num of obs./year) observations (in any format) **** first line second line third line third line third line third line fourth to nth line n + 1 line

The year, starting period, and frequence are used for the format of the tables. Warning:

The se ries can n o t contain m ore than 250 o b servations (NZ < 250).

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

This is the main program. After you have executed the INPUT, type "ESTIM" to run the program.

OUTPUT FILE

You can see the result of the program by editing or printing the file *seriesname *OUT.
GRAPHICS

Typing "GRAPH" you can see some graphics on the screen. The program selects the better graphic resolution for you (if you have any graphic adapter). In this version it also supports the print screen for a VGA graphic adapter with monochrome video.

Note: To use the print screen, type the DOS command "GRAPHICS' from DOS prompt. The program "GRAPH" creates the subdirectory GRAPH in SEATS. All relevant arrays produced by the output of the program ESTIM are passed to this subdirectory, from which they can be retrieved for further use in programs such as SAS, m a t l a b, GAUSS,

or other econometrics/statistics/graphics package. This use can be for further numerical analysis, or for different editing of the graphs, which can then be sent to a laser printer.

LASER PRINT (only fo r HP LASER JET):

Direct laser jet prints o f the graphics produced by SEATS can be obtained in the following way:

1) F ro m th e pro m p t, type EGALASER.

e x . C : > EGALASER

2) Run the program GRAPH with the oprion "-P". ex. C:> GRAPH-P

3) Graph creates a file "GRAPH.LHJ"; to print it, type:

COPY /B GRAPH.LHJ LPT!

Notice that several graphs can be jointly combined through the OVERLAY facility.

© The Author(s). European University Institute. Digitised version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

EXAMPLE OF INPUT FILE ***» SIMUL 1 80 1931 1 4 908.889 900.955 898.398 930.681 929.432 916.135 900.841 921.783 914.894 906.257 903.142 935.797 932.514 918.795 903.560 925.507 919.861 912.476 908.766 941.180 939.078 925.599 909.574 930.882 925.436 920.198 916.806 948.492 944.450 930.076 914.459 936.719 932.627 927.826 925.762 956.722 950.648 935.269 920.326 944.248 938.790 935.342 934.148 966.003 958.164 942.723 925.738 950.206 947.084 944.789 942.702 973.542 965.161 948.695 931.660 957.617 955.769 955.464 950.859 978.271 969.013 955.175 940.039 965.500 965.167 964.822 958.881 984.952 977.121 965.469 950.574 975.042 973.951 973.724 967.949 992.984 983.713 970.250 956.349 982.276 **** Note:

The first and last lines with the four stars, as well as the second line with the series name, should all start on the first column.

© The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

**PROGRAM SE A T S **

**(Signal Extraction in Arima T im e Series)**

3. Description of the Model and of the Input Parameters

*<*
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**f D ** **Q**

Multiplicative model: (P, D, Q) x (BP, BD, BQ)mq

where P £ 3, D ^ 3, Q < 3 BP £ 1, B D S 2 , B Q i 1,

*(In principle, some o f the numbers can be increased, but I would not recommend doing it *
*at present.)*

(Restriction: P + D + BP • MQ + BD • MQ > Q + BQ • MQ.)

Model:

0p(B) d>Bp (BMQ) v*1 Vmq x, where, for the most general case,

Vmq = ( 1 - B ^ r
6q(B) ©BQ(BMQ)a, + p ,
Q
<J»P (B) = 1 - ((h B - <t>2 B2 - <t>3 B3
« U U
*PHI(l) PHI(2) PH1(3)*
<d(b mQ) = 1 - <D, BmQ
*BPH I(l)*
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e (b) = i - 6 i b - e 2 b2 - e 3 b3
U J1 K
*TH(1) TH(2) TH(3)*
©(fiMQ) = 1 - 0 , Bm<3
U
*BTH (l)*
MQ
IMEAN

*Number o f observations per year (12 fo r monthly, 6 fo r bimonthly, 4 fo r *
*quarterly, I fo r annual, and so o n ) .*

*0 No mean correction (|i = 0).*
1 *Mean correction (p * o ) .*

Other parameters: (D: default value) TYPE

LAM

INIT

= *0 Maximum Likelihood Estimation. * (D)

= *1 Constrained Least Squares.*

= 0 *Logs are taken. * (D)

= *1 Original Series.*

= *0 Starting Values fo r Param. computed automatically. * (D)

= 1 *Starting Values fo r Param. input. (*)*

*= * 2 *Starting Values fo r Param. input and no parameter estimation is*
*done. (Parameters remain fixed; only residuals and forecasts are *
*estim ated.)*

*(*) When INIT = 1 or 2, the inpuied parameters are entered as PHI(i); TH(i); BPHl(i); *
*BTH(i), as detailed in the previous page.*

m a x it EPSIV M IQ NDEC NDEC1 SEK HS NPRINT FH

A positive integer *ARIMA estim ation, p lu s the 1 to L p e rio d s a h ea d *
*fo reca st.*

-1 *ARIMA estim ation, plus signal extraction, p lu s fo reca stin g (d eter*

*m ined by the program).* (D)

A positive integer. (D = 20)

*Number o f iterations in ARIMA estimation.*

A small positive number. (D = 10'3 )

*Convergence criteria fo r estimation o f a r im a.*

A Positive Number. (D = 36)

*Number o f ACF and PACF printed in tables (*m < 48).
A Positive Number. (D = 24)

*Number o f autocorrelations used in computing Q-statistics.*

A Positive Number. (D = 2)

*Controls the number o f printed decimals in some o f the tables.*
*As NDEC, but fo r another set o f tables. (D = 3)*

A Positive Number. (D = 2.5)

*Number o f Standard Deviations used fo r the detection o f outliers in *
*residuals.*

A Positive Number. (D = 10)

*Sets the scale fo r the vertical axis o f the spectral graphs.*

*0 No printing o f estimation steps. (D)*
*1 Printing o f estimation steps.*
A positive integer. (D = 8)

*Minimum number o f forecast horizon fo r series and components when *
L = -1.
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EPSPHI *When <t>p (B) contains a complex root, it is allocated to trend or seasonal if *
*its frequency differs from the trend and seasonal frequencies by less than *

*EPSPHI (measured in degrees). * (D = 5)

MATLAB = 1 *Creates a set o f arrays for direct use in Matlab. *

0 (D = 0)

TA 0 *Forces the residuals to have zero mean.*

*A positive number: if the t-value of the mean o f the residuals is larger than *
*TA, the estimator o f the constant in the model is modified. * (D = 100,
*meaning that no modification will ever be made!)*

XL and *When the modulus o f an estimated root falls in the range (XL. 1), it is set*

UR *equal to UR*

XL = .98 (D ); UR = 1 (D)

NOSER IE = 0 *Usual case (D)*

1 *No series is used. An ARIMA model is entered *(INIT = 2,

PHI (1) = _ , . . . ) , *and the program performs the decomposition of the *

*model and the subsequent model-based analysis.*

NPRFRA "J

IPASS1 > = *At present, to be ignored.*

nannuaJ

One only needs to enter the parameters that take values different from the default ones.

Default values for the model orders (and related)

P = 0 D = 1 Q = 1 BP = 0 BD = 1 BQ = 1 MQ = 12 IMEAN = 0 © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

(the so-called Airline Model of Box and Jenkins, 1970), appropriate for monthly data, by a Maximum Likelihood method.

After ML estimation of model (1), the default option computes, then, 24 forecasts for the series, and estimates the trend, seasonal and irregular components in the series (together with 24 forecasts of the trend and seasonal). Standard errors for all the previous estim ators and forecasts are also computed.

The program performs next a detailed analysis of the model, of the components and, in particular, of the trend and seasonally adjusted series, and of their rates of growth.

DEFAULT VALUES FOR THE PARAMETERS

TYPE = 0
LAM = 0
P = 0
**Q= 1 **
BD= 1
MQ = 12
SEK = 2.5DO
IQ = 24
NDEC1 = 3
MAXIT = 20
NPRFRA = 0
HS = 10.0
TA = 100.0DO
NPRINT = 0
NOSERIE = 0
UR = LODO
INIT = 0
1MEAN = 0
D = 1
BP = 0
BQ= 1
L = -1
M = 36
NDEC = 2
IPASS1 = 0
EPS1V = 0.001DO
NANNUA = 1
FH = 8
EPSPHI = 5.0D0
MATLAB = 0
XL = .98D0
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**PROGRAM SE A T S **

**(Signal Extraction in Arima T im e Series)**

4. Summary of the Program Output

a) ARIMA m odel estim ation: results and diagnosis

b) Decomposition of the ARIMA model; Derivation of the models for the components

c) Distribution of the estimators and diagnosis d) Error analysis

e) Estimates of the components

The output starts by displaying the tables of X , , xt , zt and Z[ - z if p * 0 . The mean, variance, autocorrelation function (ACF), and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) for z, ,

together with the associated standard errors, are next displayed.

a) AR1MA m odel estim ation: results and diagnosis

The ARIMA estimation computes, first, initial values of the parameters. Maximum Likelihood

estimation is carried out as in Osborn (1974), and conditional least squares as in Box and Jenkins (1970). When the modulus of an estimated AR root falls within the interval 1 ± XL, where XL is a small number (.02 by default), it is fixed as 1, and the AR polynomial contains a unit root. MA roots are required to be invertible. (Estimation is done using transformed parameters, denoted X (P H I), X (TH), etc. These transformed parameters are helpful in detecting when the nonstationary or noninvertible regions are reached.)

The estimates of the model parameters, their standard errors, and their correlation matrix are then displayed.

The residuals obtained in estimation are tabulated, and the ones larger in absolute value than SEK x o a listed and dated. Then come several statistics computed on the residuals:

Mean (and t-test for whether it is zero), Skewness, Kurtosis, and their standard errrors. Standard error, variance, and DW of the residuals,

ACF, Ljung-Box Q statistics for residual autocorrelation, and Pierce Qs statistics for

residual seasonality,

PACF,

Asymptotic t-tests for randomness of residuals and of their ACFs (based on the distributions of runs),

ACF of squared residuals and associated Q-statistics as a check of the linearity assumption.

Finally, the backward residuals, obtained with the model (5) with B replaced by F = B '1 (the forward operator), are also printed. These residuals are needed to compute backcasts of the series, which in turn are needed to estimate the components for the first years of the sample. © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

b ) Decomposition of the AR1MA model: Derivation of the models for the components Since, having estimated the residuals a , , it is always possible to divide them by their standard deviation, in this section I shall assume, without loss of generality, a ,2 = 1 . Moreover, since p can be removed from the model by centering z, around its mean, we assume |i = 0 . If the model for the ith component is given by

♦i (B) xlt = 0i (B) ait , (7)
where alt is a n.i.i.d. **(o, a 2) **variable, then, from **(6),**

**x, = X 0i (B) / ** **(B) ait , ** **(8)**

i

where we assume that different components do not share the same a rroot. (Since the a rroots

represent spectral peaks, this assumption is harmless. The components differ precisely in that they capture peaks in the spectrum at different frequencies.) Removing the denominators from

**(8),**

**p** ** M B )] x, = 1 0 , ( 8 ) * . , ** **(9)**

where 0. (B) = 0, (B) (Ji, (B) , and <)>i (B) denotes the product of all components AR polynomials except <|>i (B); i.e.,

* ( B ) = F I 4>j(b ) = 4 > (B )/fc (B ).

Comparing (9) with (5c), several results emerge:

1) The overall AR polynomial for X| is equal to the product of all AR polynomials for the components, i.e.

<*» (B ) = n * i ( B ) - (10)

2) The right-hand side of (9) is the sum of uncorrelated finite moving averages, and hence it will accept an MA representation 0 (B) at , where

If ( P i, Qi) are th e o rd ers o f the m odel (7) fo r com ponent i, then

PT = £ p i . i

an d a re a so n a b le assu m p tio n for the order o f the co m p o n en ts' MA p o ly n o m ials is

Q, = Pi •

In this case, it is easily seen that all the elements of the summation in the right-hand side of (11) are o f the same order PT. The models for the components are, thus, "balanced” in the sense that the AR and MA parts have the same degree. The decomposition of the series will be such that

^ = ^ a , t .

**<K (B) ** **. <t>i (B)**

(12)

Since <t> (B) is directly identified in the overall model, its roots will indicate the components present in the series. The roots of d> (B) = 0 are allocated as follows:

Roots of V ° = 0 =* B = 1 (D times) => TREND

**B D**

Roots of Vmq = 0 <=> BD times the roots of

(1 - B) (l + B + B2 + •■• + BmQ -‘) = 0 , S (B)

where the root *B = 1 => * TREND,

and the roots of S (B) = 0 => SEASONAL.

R o o ts o f <(>r (B) = 0 =» real ro o ts *> 0 => * t r e n d

real ro o ts < 0 *=>* im ply a c o m p o n e n t o f p erio d 2, hence:
SEASONAL, if freq u e n cy o f d a ta is larg er
than annual,
CYCLE, if an n u al data.
©
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Author(s).
European
University
Institute.
version
produced
by
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EUI
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C o m p lex ro o ts => SEASONAL, if frequency co rre sp o n d s to se aso n al frequency. (T he interval for the seasonal frequency is co n tro lle d by

EPSPH1.)

=> CYCLE, if frequency co rre sp o n d s to a p erio d lo n g er than a year.

Roots of <)>s (bmq) = 0 <=> Roots of

(1 - q B )( 1 + q B + q 2 B2 + ••• + (q B ^ Q 1) = 0 , where q = (BPHI)1/MQ .

The real positive root => TREND

The roots of (l + q B + ■■■ + ( q B f ^ 1) = 0 => SEASONAL.

In the Second Part of the program printout, the polynomials in B of the overall model are listed, as well as the factorization of the AR one, and the allocation of the roots to the different components.

Having determined which components are present and their AR parts, the decomposition of the overall model is made in the frequency domain. The spectrum (or pseudospectrum) of the series is expressed as the ratio of harmonic functions. Thus, for example, in the printout: F (x) denotes the Fourier Transform of the ACF associated with 0 (B ), that is

F (x) = 6 (e ‘“ ) 0 (e‘“ ) =

= fo + ft COS 0) + f2 COS 2 CO + f3 COS 3 Cl) + • • •

T h e p rin to u t d isp lay s the coefficients fo , fi , *(2* , f3 •••

If the spectrum of 0 (B) / 0 (B) at is F (x) / H ( x ) , the program first obtains a decomposition of the type © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

where QT is a constant, and T (x), S (x), and C (x) are the Fourier Transforms of the

c o m p o n en ts' AR po ly n o m ials:

<Me-“°) <t>,M .

expressed as harmonic functions (as linear expressions in cos (j co), j = 0, 1 ,2, - •). This is done by partial fractions expansion of the ratios of harmonic functions in several steps

1)
2)
3)
F (x)
H (x)
RT(x)
H (x)
**U(x)**
N (x)
RT (x ) + Q
H (x) V
U (x ) V (x)
N (x) S (x) ’ (H (x)
U T(x) UC (x)
T (x) C (x) ’ (N (x)
N (x) S ( x ) ,)
T (x) C ( x ) .)
(The last step is only carried out, of course, if there is a cycle component)

Having obtained the decomposition (13), the additive components of the r.h.s. represent
a first decomposition of the series. If g( ) denotes the spectrum, this first decomposition
provides:
K°(x) - UT(X)
85 W T (x) Spectrum of Trend
*85 ( ’ * S (x) Spectrum of Seasonal
*g(x) - UC(X)
88 W C (x) Spectrum of Cycle
gS (x) = QT Spectrum of Irregular.

If there are unit AR roots the word spectrum is also used to refer to the "pseudo-spectrum".

To obtain the final decomposition, given by the balanced canonical components, plus white-noise irregular (with maximum variance), the program computes:

gp (x) = g?(x) - min gjj (x) g s t o = gS(x) - m in g j(x ) gc (x) = gg (x) - min gg (x) gu (x) = gS (x) - min gg ( x ) .

When no decomposition with all spectra nonnegative can be obtained, the program informs that the attempted decomposition is invalid.

For more details on the decomposition achieved, additional helpful papers are Bell and Hillmer (1984), Maravall and Pierce (1987), and Maravall (1989).

With these functions, the program proceeds to compute minimum MSE estimators o f the

components (the irregular estimate is obtained as a residual). The estimators are obtained by applying the so-called Wiener-Kolmogorov (WK) filter, using the algorithm suggested by Wilson (see Burman, 1980). The validity of the WK filter for nonstationary series can be found in Bell (1984) or Maravall (1988).

The estimates o f the components, however, are presented at the end of the printout, in part 4. Before, the program provides a substantial amount of additional information. The first part of this information is mostly of analytical interest; the second part is oriented towards its application.

Once the spectra of the components are known, the Inverse Fourier Transform provides their ACFs. Factorization of the ACFs yields the ARIMA models for the components.

Using as an illustration Example 2 enclosed, the overall estimated ARIMA model is given by

(l - 1.395 B + B2) V V4 x, = (l - 1.008 B + .268 B2) a , , with a,2 = 1.022 . © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research Repository.

V V 4 => V = 0 =>
1 + B + B2 + B3 = 0 = >
1 - 1.395 B + B2 = 0
TREND.
SEASONAL.
Notice that (l + B + B2 + B3) = (l + B2)( l + B),
where 1 + B2 = 0 represents the once-a-year
seasonal frequency (with a peak at to = rt/2 ), and
1 + B = 0 the twice-a-year seasonal frequency
(with a peak at *0) = n ).*

CYCLE, w ith p e rio d = 7.9 q u arters,

and modulus = 1 (and hence nonstationary).

T he m odels for the co m p o n en ts are found to be:

Trend Component: V2 p, = (l - .299 B + .701 B2) ap t, Seasonal Component: (l + B + B2 + B3) Si = (l - 1.538 B - 1.222 B2 - .162 B3) as l , Cycle Component: (l - 1.395 B + B 2)c, = (l - .654 B + .364 B2)act>

and ut a white-noise variable. The variances of the components' innovations are o 2 = .032, o 2 = .103, o c = .056, o u = .025 .

T h e p ro g ram a lso co m p u tes th e m o d el fo r the se aso n ally a d ju ste d (S.A.) se ries, x * = xt - s, , equal in this case to

(l - 1.395 B + B2) V2 x* = (l + 1.659 B - .905 B2 + .091 B3 + ,046B 4) a m , © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

with a n2 = .359 . (Since o,2 = 1, all component variances are expressed as a fraction of a ,2 .) The roots o f the MA parts of the components are also printed. The canonical property implies that their spectra have to present a zero, which, in turn, implies the presence of a unit MA root. For the trend and cycle, as is always the case, the zero happens for the highest frequency m = J t; for the seasonal, it falls in the interval (n/2, J t).

c) Distribution of the estimators and diagnosis

Once the models for the components are known, it is possible to expand the analysis further, so as to provide elements for diagnosis and for inference.

In compact notation, if the overall model for xt is

d> (B) x, = 6 (B) a , , (14) and, for component x;t :

<t»i (B) Xj, = 6, (B) a ,,, the optimal estimator obtained with the WK filter can be expressed as

~ _ 2 0 ,(B ) Bi (F) d>(B) <D(F) .. Xil - Oj --- — —--- --- --- X! ,

<t>i (B) «fc (F) 0 (B) 0 (F) or, using (14),

<M B)xit = 0i(B ) P (F) at , where P (F) is the convergent expression in F:

**P (F) = a,'2 0 i(F) 4>i(F) **

**0(F)**

(15)

where <pi (F) has already been defined. Therefore, comparing (14) and (15) it is evident that, despite the similarities (for example, the stationarity inducing transformations are the same) the models for the theoretical component and for the theoretical minimum MSE estimator are not the same, and in particular, their stationary transformation will have different ACFs. Therefore, once the component estimate has been obtained, it should not be compared to the theoretical component, but to the theoretical optimal estimator. This comparison can provide the basis for a

Crosscovariance Functions (CCF): although the theoretical components are uncorrelated, their optimal estimators will be correlated. From (15), the CCFs between any two estimators are easy to obtain.

The program compares the ACFs and CCFs of the theoretical components, the theoretical estimators, and the estimates actually obtained. Boadly, the latter two should be similar, and in particular their variances should always underestimate the variance o f the theoretical component.

**d) ** **Error analysis**

Next, the program analyses the different types of estimation error. This part is explained in some detail in the enclosed background papers. In brief, let xu be the optimal estimator that the WK filter would provide for a series going from -oo to oo. In practice, only a finite series is available, say xi , X2 , x j . Denote the estimator of Xj, obtained with the finite series as x;, (T) . (To simplify the discussion, we assume that the first observation xi is "far" from period t.) This estimator is a preliminary one, and its preliminary character will vary with different values of T. As T increases, the preliminary estimator will be subject to revisions, and will converge towards the final estimator X j,.

Let 8,t denote the error in the final estimator:

*5a ~ sit * ttjt»*

and ri, (T) denote the revision error contained in the preliminary estimator xjt ( T ) , that is: rii (T) = xit - xu (T) .

Obviously, the total error in Xj, (T) is the sum of the two: e« (T) = Xj, - Xj, (T) = 5it + rit ( T ) ;

moreover, the two estimation errors, 8jt and r» (T ), are orthogonal to each other.

The output displays the variances and ACFs of the final estimation error, 8;, , of the revision error in the concurrent estimator, rj-r(T) , and of the total estimation error in the concurrent estimator, err (T ). (The ACFs are needed to compute later the errors in the different rates of growth of the components estimates.) This is done for the trend, the S.A. series, and the cycle.

For illustration, let us consider Example 1 enclosed, where the program is run in its default option on the series of the Spanish monetary aggregate. The default ARIMA model fit is the Airline model, which is decomposed into trend, seasonal, and irregular components. The default model provides a roughly decent fit, although the ACF of the squared residuals points towards the presence of some, mostly seasonal, nonlinearity.

Concerning the components estimation errors, several results can be noticed:

(a) The variances o f the final estimation error and of the revision in the concurrent estimator, for both the trend and S.A. series, are of roughly the same order of magnitude (close to 1/5 of the one-period-ahead forecast error variance for the series).

(b) The revision error is slightly larger than the final estimation error, although the differences are very small.

/

(c) The variance in the errors in estimating the trend is, in all cases, close to 15% larger than that for the S.A. series.

In summary, the variance of the error in the concurrent estimator of the trend is, approximately, 43% of o,2 ; for the S.A. series this proportion is 36%.

In the Airline Model

V V 12xt = ( l - 6 i B )(l - 0)2 B12) at + p ,

the parameters 0] and 0 i 2 are associated with the stability of the trend and seasonal component, respectively. Since, in the limit, when they are equal to one, the component becomes deterministic, the closer 0( is to 1, the more stable the trend will be, and similarly, values of 0 i 2 close to 1 are associated with a stable seasonal component. For the monetary aggregrate series 0i = - .2 6 2 , 0 )2 = .684 , and hence the series contains a rather unstable trend and a more stable seasonal. Furthermore, in this example, the derived models for the components show that the innovation variance for the trend is .28, while that for the seasonal is .04. It should be no surprise, thus, that the trend component is estimated with a larger error.

percentages become 87 and 85%, respectively. Although measured concurrently with more error, the trend estimator tends to converge faster.

Since seasonal adjustment of economic time series is typically done once a year, the factors used in practice to adjust for seasonality in the months between adjustments are forecasted factors. The next table indicates the decrease in precision of the factors used as we move away from the last adjustment. The program informs us that the move from the once-a- year adjustment to a concurrent one (i.e., to adjusting every month) would reduce (on average) the error in the factors used by 12%.

The output displays then, in detail, the recent estimates (for the last 24 months) of the components, as well as of their standard errors, indicating which part is associated with the revision. The same is done for the 1- to 24-months-ahead forecasts of the series and of the components. It is seen that, overall, for the monetary aggregate series, the forecasts o f the series, the trend, and the S.A. series have associated standard errors of similar magnitude; overall, the trend forecast tends to be slightly more precise.

As for the precision of the seasonal factor, the output displays the 95% and 70% confidence intervals, for the final and the concurrent estimators.

Since monetary policy is typically stated in terms of the rate of growth, instead of on the direct monthly observation, the program computes next the errors in the estimators of different rates of growth of the components. The rates are all expressed in points of annualized percent growth, and the errors have been computed using linear approximations.

The first rate considered is the one most often used: the monthly rate of growth of the monthly series. Since this rate is too erratic, the program also looks at the monthly rate of a three-month moving average (centered, that is, using the 1-month-ahead forecast).

The next rate included in the program is particularly appropriate for series for which there is an (explicit or implicit) annual target. The output exhibits the precision of the measurement of the annual rate of growth as the year is being completed. Thus, for example, in August, the standard error of the rate of growth for the year is close to 1/3 of the standard error for the January measurement.

If the previous rate has a fixed horizon and spans a variable number of months, the last rate considered by the program has a fixed length of 12 months, and a variable horizon. It measures the annual growth by comparing the 6-months-ahead forecast with the observation one year before this horizon. It provides a measure of the "instantaneous" annual rate of growth. It is seen that, for the monetary aggregate series, this instantaneous computation of the annual growth is a more stable measure than the annualized monthly rates of growth. It is further seen that the centered estimator of the present rate of annual growth is better measured over the trend than over the S.A. series, which in turn provides a more precise measure than the one based on the raw series.

The output displays the standard errors of the previous rates of growth estimated concurrently, of their successive revised estimators, and of the final one. For example, 95% confidence intervals around the annualized rate of growth of the monthly S.A. series (or the trend) implied by the March observation, would be given, broadly, by:

± 4 percent points (p.p.) if measured over the monthly series; ± 3.3 p.p. if measured over the three-month moving average.

Moreover, the measurement of the rate of growth for the actual year (that uses the first three months already observed) has a 95% confidence interval of ± 2.4 p.p. Finally, a similar interval for the measurement of the centered estimator of the present rate of annual growth is 2 p.p.

e) Estimates of the components

Having finished the part on error analysis, the output ends with the tables displaying the complete set of estimates of the components (or factors if the decomposition is multiplicative) for the original series X t .

**PROGRAM S E A T S **

**(Signal Extraction in Arima Time Series)**

5. Example 1: SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE SPANISH MONETARY AGGREGATE

(Default Option of the Program)

The example follows roughly the discussion in the enclosed paper "The Use of ARIMA

Models in Unobserved-Components Estimation: An Application to Spanish Monetary Control". While the paper used the period 1973-1985, the printout covers the 234 months January 1972-June

1991.

The program estimates the model

V V 12 log x, = (l - 0, B)(l - ©i2 B 12) a, + p (1) to the Spanish monetary aggregate series. The series is decomposed into trend, seasonal and irregular components.

In this example, the input parameters are all set at their default value, except for

IMEAN=1, corresponding to the presence of p . Model (1), often referred to in short as the

"Airline Model", was discussed in some detail by Box and Jenkins (1970). It has been our experience that it provides a convenient and useful starting point for many monthly macro- economic time series exhibiting trend and seasonality.

The series of the Spanish monetary aggregate (ALP) is used merely as an example. The analysis and results do not reflect official seasonal adjustment of the monetary aggregate by the Bank of Spain. Besides, prior to running SEATS on the series, three strongly negative additive outliers were modified with intervention analysis (using one single dummy variable for the three outliers). © The Author(s). European University Institute. version produced by the EUI Library in 2020. Available Open Access on Cadmus, European University Institute Research

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