Top PDF Isoprene: from the cell to the environment

Isoprene: from the cell to the environment

Isoprene: from the cell to the environment

isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes terpene volatiles released from vegetative tissues of different plant species exposed to abiotic stress could serve as mediators of thermotolera[r]

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Role of the MUTYH protein in the response to oxidative damage to DNA

Role of the MUTYH protein in the response to oxidative damage to DNA

It’s interesting that also in our mouse model 6-TG present in the dNTP represents a significant source of ROS upon UVA irradiation (Cooke et al., 2008; Brem et al., 2009). “Chase” experiments demonstrated that this non-DNA 6-TG makes indeed a considerable contribution to the 8-oxo-dG increase as well as to the killing effects induced the combined treatment in WT cells. The involvement of the oxidized nucleotide pool in DNA oxidation was confirmed by the great reduction in 8-oxo-dG levels observed in Msh2-defective MEFs overexpressing the hMTH1 hydrolase. This enzyme degrades 8-oxo-dGTP to 8- oxo-dGMP, thereby eliminating it from the pool of DNA synthesis precursors. Attempts to investigate the mechanisms underlying the resistance against the type of DNA damage induced by 6-TG and UVA and associated to Mutyh loss included flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle progression and activation of checkpoints. The absence of MUTYH was indeed associated with a failure of S- phase halt, that in contrast is evident in WT cells, following the combined treatment. The apparent absence of a clear S phase arrest in Mutyh -/- cells was paralleled by a deficient Chk1 activation at early time points after treatment. ATR-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation, is known to play a critical role in regulating replication fork stability by arresting cells in S or G2/M phase (Sørensen et Syljuåsen, 2011). Thus our results revealed that MUTYH is involved in this step of the cellular response to DNA damage.
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Prostate specific antigen (psa): from the catalytic activity to the clinical value

Prostate specific antigen (psa): from the catalytic activity to the clinical value

cardiothoracic surgery, the “da Vinci” robot found popularity within the urological community and it is now used for robot assisted laoaroscopic prostatectomy (RALP) [Abbou et al., 2001]. In the last period, some investigations suggested that a number of factors in the perioperative period could promote metastasization. These include the surgery approach and its associated stress response, the anaesthetic regimen, the acute pain, and the administration of opioid analgesics [Mao et al., 2013]. The hypothesis, in fact, is that different anesthetic protocols and surgery techniques can differently activate the clotting system, or stimulate mononuclear cells, platelets and endothelial cells. The consequent formation of a fibrin matrix, together with cell activation, appear to promote tumor growth and neo- angiogenic processes [Falanga et al., 2013]. Part of this thesis is therefore dedicated to describe the effects on coagulation and platelet-activation markers of two established types of anaesthesia in 102 patients with primary PCa undergoing LRP or RALP. In particular, before the induction of anaesthesia (T0), 1 hr post-surgery (T1) and 24 hrs post-surgery (T2) plasma levels of fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (PF12), factor VIII (FVIII), plasminogen- activator inhibitor (PAI-1), D-dimer (DD), p-selectin, anti-thrombin (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) were evaluated. In this light, perioperative variations of these parameters were followed in order to highlight the pro-thrombotic properties of different anesthetic protocols and surgery techniques during the treatment of PCa patients, trying to assess which manipulation could higher the risk of further complications.
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A new approach to antitrust law: evidence from the air transport industry

A new approach to antitrust law: evidence from the air transport industry

86 This process of development is rather hard than smooth and simple due to the diverse views and solutions Member States adopt domestically and are willing to “impose” to other countries. One clear example is indeed in the area of competition, where for the first 30 years the EU was lacking a real power on the mergers companies were carrying out in the Continent. The Spaak Report (Intergovernmental Committee of the Messina Conference, Report by the Heads of Delegations to the Foreign Ministers of 21 April 1956) asked states to confer EU institutions the power to act, but a clash between the British and the German doctrine was delaying the adoption of a regulation on the matter. Only in 1989, with the Reg. 4064/89, the German proposal passed and the “substantive test” was enshrined in the EU law, just 33 years later the proposal of the Spaak Report. 87 “So I think that competition policy has an important role to play in facing up to the biggest challenges of our time. And I think that we need to be confident about what we can do, but also modest about the things that are best done by others. There are many reasons in favour of an open and more competitive market. It can help answer many of our challenges. Competition gives people a fairer share of the benefits of growth. It helps us to keep down the costs of protecting our environment. Insight gained from enforcing competition rules can help legislators to design better regulations. At the same time, effective competition enforcement must have a clear legal framework with independence at its core. The moment we turn a blind eye to a company breaking the competition rules, just because that might help to achieve other aims, we would lose the independence that makes us effective. In short, the best way for us to contribute is simply to do our job. Because competition drives us all to do better. It gives us that extra push that helps us to deal with our challenges. And I think that is already a contribution we can be proud of.” Margrethe Vestager, Speech delivered at the 15th OECD Global Forum on Competition, Paris, 1 December 2016.
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Towards an understanding of human activities: from the skeleton to the space

Towards an understanding of human activities: from the skeleton to the space

5.4 Reflectance model and r-surfaces 39 Lambertian material with a single light, to find the solution for the otherwise unconstrained problem. In (Oxholm and Nishino, 2012), reflectance and geometry are jointly recovered by assuming a statistical BRDF model and known lighting environment. In our work, instead, we learn a non-parametric model of surface appearance directly from the measured BRDFs in unknown illumination environment. (Richter and Roth, 2015) propose a discriminative learning approach for the SFS problem, considering an uncalibrated illumination without the assumption of a single point light. (Xiong et al., 2015) examine the light locally on small patches in a Lambertian setting and for each image patch a set of 3D surface patches, that may have generated the imaged ones, is sampled. Differently from them, our approach is not based on Lambertian assumptions. In (Saxena et al., 2009), a 3D model from a single image is reconstructed basing on super-pixels segmentation and the Random Markov Field approach. In (Chandraker et al., 2005), both inter-reflections and photometric stereo are combined to resolve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity, but in a Lambertian setting. Finally, (Vasilyev et al., 2008) consider specular objects estimating the corresponding 3D shapes by means of shape from specular flow approach with general motion.
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A model to assess the emission of individual isoprenoids emitted from Italian ecosystems

A model to assess the emission of individual isoprenoids emitted from Italian ecosystems

The research carried out over the last years within the framework of the European projects BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area) (Seufert, et al., 1997), BIPHOREP (Biogenic VOC emissions and PHOtochemistry in the boreal regions of Europe) (Laurila, 1999), ECOVOC and VOCAMOD, have shown that many plants present in Southern and Central Europe exhibit an emission behaviour different from plants of the same family growing in North America. In particular, some Mediterranean species are strong monoterpene emitters, but they release them with the mechanism followed by isoprene emitting plant species. Moreover, some common deciduous species are basically non-BVOC emitters. Moreover, the emission-factors of many Mediterranean species are still affected by large uncertainties in terms of emission rates and iosoprenoid composition, and their dependence from environmental factors is still unknown. Emission variations can be induced by differences in latitude, climate and soil type. For some oaks, the tendency to form hybrid may change the emission behaviour. A reliable model for predicting the BVOC emission over the Italian territory requires that all the various parameters influencing the plant emission are taken into a due account. Given the complexity of plant physiology, parameterization procedures were developed in this work to describe as better as possible the effect produced by environmental factors and physiological and phonological processes. Due to the large biodiversity of the Italian forest ecosystems, different parameterization procedures were adopted for the different plant species. The estimate was also complicated by the fact that values of some environmental factors to predict the emission were required at the same spatial and temporal resolution requested by the model.
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Governing water and environment in times of climate change: the case of the Venice lagoon

Governing water and environment in times of climate change: the case of the Venice lagoon

118 The reuse of dredged sediment for morphological restoration in the lagoon is, again on a scientific ground, an example where experiments and policy change do not go hand in hand. As a matter of fact, scientific knowledge has been accumulated much more rapidly than the policy system could absorb. The protocol of April 1993 among Ministry of Environment, Venice Water Authority, Veneto Region, Venice Province, Port Authority, Venice Municipality and Chioggia Municipality on environmental safety criteria for the excavation, transportation and re-use of sediment extracted from the Venice lagoon channels is a regulation that classifies dredged sediment in four categories of uses according to their level of pollution. The classification is based on standards of total concentration for a list of substances. On the one hand, there is an enormous need of sediment for the morphological restoration. On the other hand, according to this classification, most dredged sediment is slightly polluted (so called B category) and cannot be used for the morphological reconstruction and has to be safely stored at very high cost. In the past decade, several studies conducted by the Venice Water Authority and international scientists have proved that using this category of sediment for morphological reconstruction is safe and that it would be wise to revise the sediment classification using a risk assessment approach rather than standards. This would allow a more effective use of the lagoon sediment. All institutions that signed the protocol agree on the need to revise the regulation but not on the proposed approach to adopt (Ufficio di Piano 2010c). Consequently an evaluation of current safety norms has not been started and it is not facilitated by institutions at present. In particular, the main arguments of skeptics are that: the risk assessment approach is not completely objective; studies conducted by the agency that would most benefit from changing the protocol may be biased and therefore not reliable; the suggested approach is not in line with that adopted by the EU, which sets standards to assess sediment quality in the context of the WFD; the list of substances will have to be extended to be in line with the national and the EU regulation and therefore it may happen that changing the current norm would reduce the suitable sediment for morphological reconstruction (public officer, personal
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The cortical connections of the areas of the dorsal bank of the intraparietal sulcus: histological studies and perspectives from probabilistic tractography

The cortical connections of the areas of the dorsal bank of the intraparietal sulcus: histological studies and perspectives from probabilistic tractography

5 Andersen and Buneo, 2002), together with the dorsal aspect of area PO (i.e., area V6A; Galletti et al., 1996). Common feature of PRR would be encoding reaching in eye coordinates. It has also been reported that neurons in MIP are selectively modulated by the direction of hand movement during a visuomotor task performed using a joystick (Eksandar and Assad, 1999, 2002), and by active vs passive movement of the head (Klam and Graf, 2006). One study (Seelke et al., 2012) explored the receptive fields of neurons in the rostral portion of the dorsal bank of the IPS in two regions, named by the authors 5L and medial IPS, which seem to partially overlap with PEa and MIP, respectively. Their topographical organization can be summarized as follow: in both area 5L (putative PEa) and medial IPS (putative MIP), multiple receptive fields of the same body part can be found at different locations, and cell receptive fields can include different body parts. Intriguingly, the medial IPS seems to represent the entire body and, furthermore, contains neurons that are responsive to visual stimuli, while area 5L contains only forelimb representations. These findings are supported by the evidence of projections from area PEa (PEip; Matelli et al., 1998), but not from MIP, to the cervical level of the spinal cord, which suggests also an anatomo-functional distinction between the two areas.
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The role of institutional environment in economic performance

The role of institutional environment in economic performance

Guriev (2004) offers a model that deals with market failure; introducing interaction between the red tape and corruption. The agent’s type can not be known because of the presence of externalities that leads to the market failure. Hence, the State hires the bureaucrats to find out agents’ types in order to provide them goods. Bureaucrats introduce red tape to screen the agents. The agents of the good type receive the good from the State, while those of bad type do not. The State maximizes the social welfare function, while the rest of agents maximize their utility function. Ex post and ex ante corruption and informative red tape are introduced into the model and the mechanism of their integration is evaluated. The model shows the general equilibrium where the level of red tape is above the social optimal level due to the corruption mechanism. The author argues that even though the corruption may have positive effects, its overall effect is always destructive, since it increases the red tape and decreases the social welfare.
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Multimodal Imaging as a tool to study the neurovascular coupling in the spinal cord

Multimodal Imaging as a tool to study the neurovascular coupling in the spinal cord

The SC is part of the CNS and participates to the active and passive control of sensory-motor functions (e.g. locomotion, motility, pain perception). It is uniformly organized and it is divided into four regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. In cross-section, the peripheral region of the cord contains myelinated axons that constitute the spinal white matter and form ascending and descending tracts to and from supraspinal regions. In contrast to the brain, the SC white matter surrounds the butterfly-shaped grey matter, containing neuron bodies and glial cells. The grey matter is further subdivided into a posterior horn and an anterior horn. The thoracic and upper two lumbar SC segments also display a wedge-shaped, intermediate lateral horn (intermediolateral cell column). The dorsal horn is along the entire SC and comprises sensory nuclei that receive and process incoming somatosensory information. From there, ascending projections emerge to transmit the sensory information to the midbrain and diencephalon. The intermediate lateral horn includes autonomic neurons that innervate visceral and pelvic organs. The ventral horn comprises motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles. Although the SC is the output station of the central motor system, little is known about the relationships between its functional activity and willed movement parameters in humans. Thanks the help of the fMRI applied to SC may be possible to understand this relationship. However many difficulties in spinal fMRI arise from the specific anatomic features of the SC. In particular, the small cross-sectional area and large rostrocaudal extent of the SC, and its variable curvature imply a low signal, because of the constraints they impose on the voxel size. In spite of the small voxel size usually employed, a significant and variable contamination of the signal occurs because of partial volume effect and motion. The proximity of the SC to several structures of different density (vertebrae, intervertebral discs) gives rise to large variations in magnetic susceptibility and determines a relatively poor local magnetic field homogeneity, causing image distortion and low signal intensity in standard T 2 ∗ -weighted fMRI with echo planar imaging (EPI) 2 readout.
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Studying the role of chromatin remodelers during cell division

Studying the role of chromatin remodelers during cell division

Chromatin has hierarchical levels ranging from the repetition of the unit of basic, the nucleosome, at higher order levels (Ou et al., 2017). This organization, finely regulated, represents a dynamic balance between packaging of the genome and its accessibility. The linear length of DNA chromosome in a human cell presents a significant topological challenge since about 2 meters of DNA must be packed in the core characterized by a diameter of only 6 μm (Andrews and Luger, 2011; Khorasanizadeh, 2004). Nucleosomes are positioned along DNA in a “beads on a string” configuration to create a 10-nm fiber.
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Optimizing the wood supply chain in Calabria: from harvest site to the mill of wood process

Optimizing the wood supply chain in Calabria: from harvest site to the mill of wood process

The objective of this study was to analyze the productivity of Greifenberg TG 700 sites in two different using a time motion methodology. No significant differences in productivity and costs were found between site A and site B. In this study, productivity (SMH) was found as 7.24 m³h -1 for transporting distance (for average 155 m) in site A, and 7.35 m³h -1 (for average distance 176 m) in B, causes number of tress per turn. The acquired data and the resulting analysis focused on the bunching operation since it is one of the most critical working elements of logging. Even though the productivity of the tested crane was lower than other cable cranes used outside Italy, the data obtained throughout this study was higher than 0.5 m 3 m -1 , the necessary minimum for economic logging with traditional cableway and 0.2 m 3 m -1 , the necessary minimum for economic logging with cable cranes in Italy. Unproductive time should be reduced by employing workers specialized in cable system operations; and maintenance and repair of carriages, chokers, and cables must be done at the start of the activity. Finally, the high purchase price of this type of machine may be discounted against its minimal negative impact on the environment and the fact that it may be the only viable and sustainable extraction method for the management of sensitive sites [6, 14, 16]. Interaction between silviculture and logging operations remain particularly important on steep terrain. For cable systems, communication between the forest manager (who marks the trees to be removed) and the logging company (who calculates the location of the lines) is essential [8, 9]. Further research into cable extraction systems could employ a global navigation satellite system installed in the carriage to support automatic or semi-automatic operational monitoring, as well as improving the quantity of data acquired to reduce the workload of the surveyor [4, 5].
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Meat aging: the "omics" integration to the analysis of the biochemical evolution drving the muscle-to-meat conversion process

Meat aging: the "omics" integration to the analysis of the biochemical evolution drving the muscle-to-meat conversion process

Considering the impaired mitochondrial respiration and the concomitant increase in ROS concentrations, the question about the duality apoptosis/ autophagy in the process of muscle to meat conversion finds its ‘raison d'etre’: do the postmortem muscle cells counteract the oxidative stress activating autophagy, in an attempt to rescue the damaged structures, or do they directly fall into one of the programmed cell death forms? This survey is further complicated by many other factors influencing the development of muscle into meat, such as pH, calcium concentration, sarcomere length and collagen content (D’Alessandro & Zolla, 2013), age, gender, genotype, breed, nutritional status and levels of pre-slaughter stress (due to transportation and slaughter itself (Gregory, 2008; Van de Perre et al., 2010). The complex network originating from these aspects makes it difficult to build up a univocal and unambiguous underlying mechanism valid for any case of muscle to meat conversion. In the previous part of the thesis I have analyzed the Piedmontese meat from an omic standpoint, making use of metabolomics and 1D gel electrophoresis. With the present study, I have deepened the study of prolonged aged meat peculiarities from the omic point of view, using the 2D electrophoresis techniques coupled with mass spectrometry spot identification, supported by metabolomic and phosphoproteomic analyses along a 0-44 days time course experiment on Piedmontese longissimus thoracis muscle. The aim was the search for suggestive clues about the apoptotic or the autophagic behavior of meat cells.
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Discovering the world city: from texts' analysis to 3D scenes visualization

Discovering the world city: from texts' analysis to 3D scenes visualization

annotated with geometries information and a lexicon of 15,000 nouns. The tool is able to depict scenes starting from the interpretation of natural language and to do little inferring of background locations and poses of characters. A further implementation of WordsEye tool has been presented in the paper [101] where the authors describe a methodology to represent unstated facts in 3D environments. More specifically, the system tries to infer the presence of the “missing objects” which are the ones that are not mentioned in the text but that should appear in the scene. Their placement will depend on the knowledge of the objects described in the textual description and on their explicit constraints. An analogous but more challenging work [3] regards the development of a system able to infer the presence of implicit objects in a scene, or constraints on them, starting from textual descriptions contained in fiction books. The necessity of inferring the presence of implicit objects comes from the fact that the writers generally do not provide detailed explanations of the scenes but they lead the readers to use their imagination to “construct” the settings. This means that the system has to hypothesize the most precise spatial configurations possible by exploiting the information provided by the text. Another work, which concerns the capability of a system to infer the environment of textual descriptions is [102]. It tries to create plausible three- dimensional settings taking into account the objects or the actions involved in the textual descriptions; for example, if we consider the sentence “Carl is having a shower” the aim of the system is to comprehend that the scene is set in a bathroom and not in a bedroom or in a kitchen.
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<<The>> role of intrinsic and extrinsic signals in the regulation of brest cancer stem cell activity

<<The>> role of intrinsic and extrinsic signals in the regulation of brest cancer stem cell activity

In the last years, multiple reports have shown that a subpopulation of cancer cells displaying stem cell properties and named as cancer stem cells (CSCs) plays a crucial role in sustaining tumor growth and progression. These cells are characterized by their ability to undergo self-renewal, a process that drives tumorigenesis, and to differentiate into the non-self-renewing cells forming the tumor bulk [2, 3]. From a clinical point of view, the main concern with CSCs is related to their resistance to conventional treatments (e.g. endocrine-, chemo- and radio-therapy), a feature that might be the underlying cause of tumor recurrence and metastases [4–6]. Similar to embryonic and somatic stem cells, the self-renewal and differentiation of CSCs are regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways whose dysregulation may be a key event initiating carcinogenesis. Among the intrinsic pathways, an important role is displayed by developmental signals such as Wnt, Hedgehog, Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2-STAT3) and Notch pathways that are frequently deranged in cancers [7]. Extrinsic signals that regulate stem cell behaviour originate in the surrounding stem cell microenvironment, termed as cancer stem niche. This niche contains a number of cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), adipocytes, endothelial and immune cells, all of which, through networks of cytokines and growth factors, have been shown to influence tumor growth and metastasis [8]. Thus, strategies aimed to specifically target the interaction between CSCs and their microenvironment may represent an important approach to improve patient outcome.
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The localization problem : From robotics to sensor networks

The localization problem : From robotics to sensor networks

The environments were selected with increasing complexity and size. All of them contained ambiguous areas (including corridors, similar rooms, et cetera) and places in which both sensors and kinematics fail (glass doors, smooth floors, et cetera). Laser rangefinders were set to high definition and small range mode (8m), so that the overall coverage of the environment would not always be guaranteed. The Corridor. The robot moved through the corridor, making 180 ◦ U-turns at each dead-end (Fig. 4.3). The sampling frequency was 5Hz and an accurate Kalman path estimation was available for comparison. The environment featured highly ambiguous pathways and areas, especially in the middle of the corridor and in the two almost identical niches at each end. Tracking was further complicated due to sliding phenomena impacting encoder data and noise affecting laser mea- surements (especially in the U-turn, where glass doors were also present). The foreground strategy was not limited to the trivial best-colony (or best-particle) choice. More complex problem settings demanded more robust hypotheses dis- crimination. Experimental results suggested that the simple competitive-logistic model was powerful enough to carry on the multi-hypothesis. However, a bet- ter tracking performance was obtained by exploiting the modified reproduction schema.
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Life beyond the borders: the resistance of the black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus to radiation and space environment

Life beyond the borders: the resistance of the black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus to radiation and space environment

60 characterize the effect of ionizing radiation of astrobiological relevance on different microorganisms. In this frame, we analyzed survival, ultrastructural damage and DNA persistence at different 60 Co irradiation doses, in three eukaryotic models from Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities, widespread in the Antarctic desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, the closest Terrestrial analogue for Mars. Our models were: (i) Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515, a black fungus, (ii) a hyaline fungus, strain CCFEE 6113, related to the lichenized genus Umbilicaria, and (iii) Stichococcus sp. strain C45A, a green alga. C. antarcticus, in particular, was already selected in the past for astrobiological studies for its exceptional stress resistance and long-term survival when exposed to actual space conditions and simulated Martian conditions in space (Onofri et al., 2012, 2015). From October 2014 to February 2016, C. antarcticus was exposed anew on the EXPOSE-R2 platform, outside the International Space Station, in the frame of the BIOMEX project (de Vera et al., 2012). Less information are available on the resistance of the selected alga and Umbilicaria sp. Photosynthetic organisms are known to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation since they can directly interfere with photosynthesis along with other metabolic functions (Kovacs and Keresztes, 2002). Algal cells in Cladonia verticillata treated with 10,000 Gy ionizing radiations showed cytoplasmic breakup in 20-30% of cells and altered growth (de la Torre, this issue). Besides, both an Antarctic strain of Stichococcus sp. and a lichenized hyaline ascomycete were isolated from rocks colonized with cryptoendolithic communities after long-term permanence in outer Space (Scalzi et al., 2012). The responses of taxonomically and functionally distant organisms to the same treatment in terms of survival and DNA persistence is of astrobiological significance giving indication on resistance to some space parameters and searching for biosignatures.
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The complex environment of AGN

The complex environment of AGN

The innovative imaging and spectral analysis presented in this thesis opens a new window in observing the circumnuclear medium of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies. In Fig. 5.1 and Fig 5.2 we present very preliminary studies on the Compton Thick AGN in the Circinus galaxy, using the same approach described in the case of NGC 4945, with a 250 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation. The source presents an extended emission in the 6.2-6.7 keV and in the 2-10 keV energy bands (Fig. 5.1, bottom panels), the two regions are very different from each other and in the top panel of Fig. 5.1 the ratio between the former and the latter is shown. This image emphasizes the region of the Iron Kα emission with respect to the one of the reflected continuum emission: the gas responsible for such a spectral component is clumpy and symmetric with respect to the nucleus, leading to a scenario where the geometry is the fundamental ingredient in the Iron Kα emission. The spectra obtained from the central 4 boxes (Fig 5.2, top panel) and from the lateral 4 boxes (Fig 5.2, bottom panel) allow us to perform a complete mapping of the emitting region and show a variation in EW of the Iron Kα line that can reach a factor of 3. The simple model used to fit the data consists in a reflection continuum (PEXRAV, Madgziarz & Zdziarski 1995) and two Gaussian emission lines for neutral and ionized iron. We are currently investigating if such a variation may be due to different scattering angles between the reflected emission and the line of sight.
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The spatial dimension of creativity: evidence from the metropolitan region of Rome

The spatial dimension of creativity: evidence from the metropolitan region of Rome

In the second group of explanatory variables we treat the physical environment, distinguishing between urban quality, social and cultural amenities and infrastructural facilities. Urban quality (architecture and streetscapes) plays an important role on the locational choices of creative people. This measure is approximated by the average real estate prices of offices and shops in the period 2006-2009 and by the average real estate prices of housing in the period 2006-2009. In the case of Rome, we have already observed a positive relationship between creative clustering and the urban quality, proven by the presence of creative pockets located in ‘rich’ neighbourhoods (see section 3.6). On the other hand, the average renting prices of offices in the period 2006-2009 and the average renting prices of houses in the period 2006-2009 may capture for affordable locations, a possible driver for locational preferences of small firms, in particular. In addition to these variables, we count the number of buildings per census block used as offices, commercial and industrial activities, considering it a possible driver of locational choices of large firms. As previously argued, creative people are attracted by social and cultural amenities. These are included in our analysis by counting the number of museums, art galleries, theatres, and entertainment facilities in the census blocks. Given the monocentric structure of the urban system, we include, in addition, the Euclidean distance from the city centre of the creative activities 9 , to capture for the accessibility to a larger number of urban services and infrastructures. Other spatial-specific characteristics include the Euclidean distance from the three main city airports, the Euclidean distance from nodes of the main road network, the Euclidean distance from rail and metro stations.
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FoxO3a reactivation restores the sensitivity to the antiestrogen treatment in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

FoxO3a reactivation restores the sensitivity to the antiestrogen treatment in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

AMPk is a highly conserved sensor of increased levels of AMP and ADP originating from ATP depletion (30,31). It appears to be involved in cancer because of its ability to act as a tumor-suppressor. From our data, upon Bg treatment, the AMPk content increased in MCF7 cells acting as an energy sensor allowing the cells to meet the reduced energy supply, while in ZR75 cells its expression did not change, in agreement with the higher ATP levels obtained in these cells. Summarizing the role of Bg on glucose utilization and bioen- ergetics: in MCF7 cells, upon Bg treatment, glycolysis and PPP rates were significantly reduced, OXPHOS components were scarcely impaired and the ATP production was reduced. In ZR75 cells, the psoralen induced similar effects on glycolysis, while an increased OXPHOS as well as ATP content were observed. These data suggest that the two cell lines exhibit different bioenergetic phenotypes. MCF7 cells express preva- lently a glycolytic phenotype only partially oxidative, while ZR75 cells mainly express an oxidative phenotype. This may explain why ZR75 cells are more resistant to B-induced cell death vs. MCF7 cells, as we previously reported (12). This assumption is supported by a recent finding demonstrating how ZR75 cells selectively use genes for energy, sugar metabolism and other pathways differently from MCF7 cells, imparting more aggressiveness to ZR75 cells (24).
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